10 Local authorities agreed to proceed only on the assurance that Strauss would alter the design and accept input from several consulting project experts. Citation needed a suspension-bridge design was considered the most practical, because of recent advances in metallurgy. 10 Strauss spent more than a decade drumming up support in Northern California. 18 The bridge faced opposition, including litigation, from many sources. The department of War was concerned that the bridge would interfere with ship traffic. The navy feared that a ship collision or sabotage to the bridge could block the entrance to one of its main harbors.
Bridge, history, design, types, parts, facts
San Francisco was the ground largest American city still served primarily by ferry boats. Because it did not have a permanent link with communities around the bay, the city's growth rate was below the national average. 14 Many experts said that a bridge could not be built across the 6,700 ft (2,042 m) strait, which had strong, swirling tides and currents, with water 372 ft (113 m) deep 15 at the center of the channel, and frequent strong winds. Experts said that ferocious winds and blinding fogs would prevent construction and operation. 14 Conception Although the idea of a bridge spanning the golden Gate was not new, the proposal that eventually took hold was made in a 1916 San Francisco bulletin article by former engineering student James Wilkins. 16 San Francisco's City Engineer estimated the cost at 100 million, which would have been.12 billion in 2009, and impractical for the time. He asked bridge engineers whether it could be built for less. 10 One who responded, joseph Strauss, was an ambitious engineer and poet who had, for his graduate thesis, designed a 55-mile-long (89 km) railroad bridge across the bering Strait. 17 At the time, strauss had completed some 400 drawbridges —most of which were inland—and nothing on the scale of the new project. 3 Strauss's initial drawings 16 were for a massive cantilever on each side of the strait, connected by a central suspension segment, which Strauss promised could be built for 17 million.
7, shredder the, frommer's travel guide describes the golden Gate Bridge as "possibly the most beautiful, certainly the most photographed, bridge in the world." 8 9, at the time of its opening in 1937, it was both the longest and the tallest suspension bridge in the. Ferry service, golden Gate with, fort point in foreground,. 1891, before the bridge was built, the only practical short route between San Francisco and what is now Marin county was by boat across a section of San Francisco bay. A ferry service began as early as 1820, with a regularly scheduled service beginning in the 1840s for the purpose of transporting water to san Francisco. The sausalito land and Ferry company service, launched in 1867, eventually became the golden Gate ferry company, a southern Pacific railroad subsidiary, the largest ferry operation in the world by the late 1920s. 10 11 Once for railroad passengers and customers only, southern Pacific's automobile ferries became very profitable and important to the regional economy. 12 The ferry crossing between the hyde Street pier in San Francisco and sausalito in Marin county took approximately 20 minutes and cost.00 per vehicle, a price later reduced to compete with the new bridge. 13 The trip from the san Francisco ferry building took 27 minutes. Many wanted to build a bridge to connect San Francisco to marin county.
The, golden Gate Bridge is a suspension bridge spanning the, golden Gate, the writing one-mile-wide (1.6 km) strait connecting, san Francisco bay and the, pacific Ocean. The structure links the American city. San Francisco, california the northern tip of the, san Francisco peninsula to, marin county, carrying both. Route 101 and, california state route 1 across the strait. The bridge is one of the most internationally recognized symbols of San Francisco, california, and the United States. It has been declared one of the. Wonders of the modern World by the, american Society of civil Engineers.
"Charles Bridge (Karlův most. Retrieved ; "Charles Bridge". A view On Cities. Retrieved Frucht, richard (2005). Eastern Europe : an introduction to the people, lands, and culture. Santa barbara, ca: abc-clio. Prague the czech Republic. Photogallery from the online petition by the Association for the conservation and development of the cultural Heritage (asorkd) czech Republic - the botched Restoration of Charles Bridge on decision 34COM7B.82 External links edit.
The Bridge of San luis rey by Thornton Wilder: Free
7 Charles Bridge (Karlův most Vltava single river, Prague, 2015 Statues on the bridge edit main article: List of statues on Charles Bridge Charles Bridge and the holy Crucifix,. 1935 The avenue of 30 mostly baroque statues and statuaries situated on the balustrade forms a unique connection of artistic styles with the underlying gothic bridge. Most sculptures were erected between 162 They depict various saints and patron saints venerated at that time. The most prominent Bohemian sculptors of the time took part in decorating the bridge, such as Matthias Braun, jan Brokoff, and his sons Michael Joseph and Ferdinand Maxmilian. Among the most notable sculptures, one can find the statuaries.
Luthgard, william the holy Crucifix and Calvary, and John of Nepomuk. Well known also is the statue of the knight Bruncvík, although it was erected some 200 years later and does not belong to the main avenue. Beginning in 1965, all of the statues have been systematically replaced by replicas, and the originals have been exhibited in the lapidarium of the national Museum. References edit a b c d e f "Charles' Bridge (Karluv most. a b c d e dana Shanberg.
A capital repair of the bridge took place between 19, based on a collaboration among various scientific and cultural institutes. The stability of the pillars was reassured, all broken stone blocks were replaced, and the asphalt top was removed. All vehicular traffic has been excluded from Charles Bridge since then, making it accessible by pedestrians only. The repair cost 50 million crowns. During the 1990s, some people started criticizing the previous reconstruction of the bridge and proposing further work.
As of the beginning of the new millennium, most of the experts appeared to agree that the previous reconstruction had not been flawless but disputed the need for further interference with the bridge. However, after the disastrous floods of 2002 (which themselves caused only minor harm to the bridge support for an overall bridge reconstruction grew. It was decided that repair and stabilization of the two pillars (numbers 8 and 9) on the malá Strana side of the bridge would be done. These are the only river pillars that were not repaired after the 1890 floods. The reconstruction was a gradual process that closed off parts of the bridge without closing the span entirely. Performed from 2008 to 2010, the work included bolstering the pillars and building a new hydroisolation system protecting the bridge. It also encompassed a re-pavimentation of the bridge's pavement and the replacement of many of the stones in the bridge walls, a matter which was controversial due to a heavy-handed approach adopted by the restoration team, which had no previous experience in restoration of cultural. The result has been criticised by conservation professionals all over Europe (see photos on external links as dozens of new replacement stones do not match the historical ones they are next to, the amount of replaced stones is considered excessive, some stones have been inappropriately. 5 6 In 2010 unesco 's World Heritage committee adopted a decision stating that "the restoration of Charles Bridge was carried out without adequate conservation advice on materials and techniques".
An Occurrence at Owl Creek bridge summary
With the fifth pillar, two statues. Ignatius of loyola and. Xavier, both by ferdinand Brokoff also fell into the river. The former statue was replaced by a statuary of saints Cyril and Methodius by karel dvořák ; the latter was replaced by a replica of the original. Repair works lasted for two years (the bridge was reopened on 19 november 1892) and cost 665,000 crowns. 20th century to present edit In the beginning of the 20th century, charles Bridge saw a steep rise of heavy traffic. The last day of the horse line on the bridge was, when it was replaced with an real electric tram and later, in 1908, with buses. At the end of World War ii, plan a barricade was built in the Old Town bridge tower gateway.
During a great flood in 1784, five pillars were severely damaged and although the arches did not break down, the traffic on the bridge had to be greatly restricted for some time. The original stairway to kampa Island was replaced by a new one in 1844. The next year, another great flood threatened the bridge, but the bridge escaped major damage. In 1848, during the revolutionary days, the bridge escaped unharmed from the cannonade, but some of the statues were damaged. In 1866, pseudo-gothic gas lights were erected on the balustrade; they were later replaced with electric lighting. In the 1870s, the first regular public-transport ( omnibus ) line went over the bridge (officially called "Charles Bridge" after 1870) later replaced by a horse tram. 2 The bridge towers underwent a thorough reconstruction between 18On 25 September 1890, another disastrous flood struck Prague and severely damaged Charles Bridge. Thousands of rafts, logs and other floating materials that escaped from places upstream gradually formed a huge barrier leaning against the bridge. Three arches were torn down by the great pressure and two pillars collapsed from being undermined by the water, while others were partly damaged.
of numerology and felt that this specific time, which formed a palindrome (1357 9, 7 5:31 was a numerical bridge, and would imbue charles Bridge with additional strength. 3 The bridge was completed 45 years later in 1402. 4 A flood in 1432 damaged three pillars. In 1496 the third arch (counting from the Old Town side) broke down after one of the pillars lowered, being undermined by the water (repairs were finished in 1503). A year after the battle of White mountain, when the 27 leaders of the anti- habsburg revolt were executed on, the Old Town Bridge tower served as a deterrent display of the severed heads of the victims to stop czechs from further resistance. During the end of the Thirty years' war in 1648, the Swedes occupied the west bank of the Vltava, and as they tried to advance into the Old Town the heaviest fighting took place right on the bridge. During the fighting, they severely damaged one side of the Old Town bridge tower (the side facing the river) and the remnants of almost all gothic decorations had to be removed from it afterward. During the late 17th century and early 18th century the bridge gained its typical appearance when an alley of baroque statues was installed on the pillars.
This "solid-land" connection made Prague important as a trade route between Eastern and Western Europe. The bridge is 621 metres (2,037 ft) long and nearly 10 metres (33 ft) wide, following the example of the. Stone Bridge in, regensburg, it about was built as a bow bridge with 16 arches shielded by ice guards. 2, it is protected by three bridge towers, malá Strana Bridge tower two of them on the. Lesser quarter side and one on the, old Town side, the, old Town Bridge tower. The bridge is decorated by a continuous alley of 30 statues and statuaries, most of them baroque -style, originally erected around 1700 but now all replaced by replicas. Repairs are scheduled to start in late 2019, they should take around 20 years. History edit, through the 19th century edit Charles Bridge during 1872 flood Throughout its history, charles Bridge has suffered several disasters and witnessed many historic events.
Operating Fleet, seaspan Corporation
Charles Bridge czech : Karlův most karluf most ( listen ) is a historic bridge that crosses the. Vltava river in, prague, czech Republic. Its construction started in 1357 under the auspices of King. Charles iv, and finished in the beginning of the 15th century. 2, the bridge replaced the old Judith Bridge built that had been badly damaged by a flood in 1342. This new bridge was originally called Stone Bridge (. Kamenný most ) or Prague bridge pražský most ) but has been "Charles Bridge" since 1870. 2, as the only means of crossing the river Vltava (Moldau) until 1841, Charles Bridge was the most important connection between. Prague castle and the city's, old Town and adjacent areas.