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With máel Coluim and Edward dead in the same battle, and his other sons in Scotland still young, domnall was made king. However, donnchad ii, máel Coluim's eldest son by his first wife, obtained some support from William Rufus and took the throne. According to the Anglo-saxon Chronicle his English and French followers were massacred, 68 and Donnchad ii himself was killed later in the same year (1094) by domnall's ally máel Petair of mearns. In 1097, william Rufus sent another of máel Coluim's sons, Edgar, to take the kingship. The ensuing death of Domnall Bán secured the kingship for Edgar, and there followed a period of relative peace. The reigns of both Edgar and his successor Alexander are obscure by comparison with their successors.

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44 In subsequent medieval propaganda donnchad's reign was portrayed positively, while macBeth was vilified; William Shakespeare followed this distorted history in describing both men and the queen consort Gruoch in his play macbeth. Note 5 It was máel Coluim iii, not his father Donnchad, who did more to create the dynasty that ruled Scotland for the following two centuries. Part of the resource was the large number of children he had, perhaps as many as a dozen, through marriage to the widow or daughter of Thorfinn Sigurdsson and afterwards to the Anglo-hungarian princess Margaret, granddaughter of Edmund Ironside. However, despite having a royal reviews Anglo-saxon wife, máel Coluim spent much of his reign conducting slave raids against the English, adding to the woes of that people in the aftermath of the norman Conquest of England and the harrying of the north. Marianus Scotus narrates that "the gaels and French devastated the English; and the English were dispersed and died of hunger; and were compelled to eat human flesh". 63 máel Coluim's queen Margaret was the sister of the native claimant to the English throne, edgar Ætheling. 64 This marriage, and máel Coluim's raids on northern England, prompted interference by the norman rulers of England in the Scottish kingdom. 65 King William the conqueror invaded and máel Coluim submitted to his authority, giving his oldest son Donnchad as a hostage. onwards there were various cross border raids by both parties and máel Coluim himself and Edward, his eldest son by margaret, died in one of them in the battle of Alnwick, in 1093. 67 Tradition would have made his brother Domnall Bán máel Coluim's successor, but it seems that Edward, his eldest son by margaret, was his chosen heir.

In 945, king máel Coluim I received Strathclyde as part of summary a deal with King Edmund of England, an event offset somewhat by máel Coluim's loss of control in Moray. 59 Sometime in the reign of king Idulb (954962 the Scots captured the fortress called oppidum Eden,. 60 Scottish control of Lothian was strengthened with máel Coluim ii's victory over the northumbrians at the battle of Carham (1018). The Scots had probably some authority in Strathclyde since the later part of the ninth century, but the kingdom kept its own rulers, and it is not clear that the Scots were always strong enough to enforce their authority. 61 The reign of King Donnchad I from 1034 was marred by failed military adventures, and he was killed in a battle with the men of Moray, led by macBeth who became king in 1040. 62 MacBeth ruled for seventeen years, so peacefully that he was able to leave to go on pilgrimage to rome. However, he was overthrown by máel Coluim, the son of Donnchad, who some months later defeated MacBeth's stepson and successor Lulach to become king máel Coluim iii.

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52 Some time after 1018 and before 1054, the kingdom appears to have been conquered by the Scots, most probably during the reign of professional máel Coluim mac Cináeda who died in 1034. At this time the territory of Strathclyde extended as far south as the river Derwent. 53 In 1054, the English king Edward the confessor presentation dispatched Earl Siward of Northumbria against the Scots, then ruled by mac Beth. S, if not earlier in the reign of máel Coluim mac Donnchada, it appears that the Scots again controlled Strathclyde, although William Rufus annexed the southern portion in 1092. 53 The territory was granted by Alexander I to his brother david, later King david i, in 1107. 55 Kingdom of Alba or Scotia edit main article: Kingdom of Alba gaelic kings: Domnall ii to Alexander i edit The pictish beast, by far the most common animal depiction on Pictish stones, with unclear political or mythological meaning 56 Domnall mac causantín's nickname was. This simply meant a madman, or, in early Irish law, a man not in control of his functions and hence without legal culpability. 57 The following long reign (900942/3) of his successor causantín is more often regarded as the key to formation of the kingdom of Alba. 58 The period between the accession of máel Coluim i and máel Coluim mac Cináeda was marked by good relations with the wessex rulers of England, intense internal dynastic disunity and, despite this, relatively successful expansionary policies.

45 south west Scotland edit by the mid tenth century Amlaíb cuarán controlled The Rhinns 46 and the region gets the modern name of Galloway from the mixture of viking and gaelic Irish settlement that produced the gall-gaidel. 47 Magnus Barelegs is said to have "subdued the people of Galloway" 48 in the eleventh century and Whithorn seems to have been a centre of Hiberno-norse artisans who traded around the Irish sea by the end of the first millennium. 49 However, the place name, written and archaeological evidence of extensive norse (as opposed to norse-gael ) settlement in the area is not convincing. 48 The ounceland system seems to have become widespread down the west coast including much of Argyll, and most of the south west apart from a region near the inner Solway firth. In Dumfries and Galloway the place name evidence is complex and of mixed gaelic, norse and Danish influence, the last most likely stemming from contact with the extensive danish holdings in northern England. 50 Although the Scots obtained greater control after the death of Gilla Brigte and the accession of Lochlann in 1185, galloway was not fully absorbed by Scotland until 1235, after the rebellion of the galwegians was crushed. 51 Strathclyde edit main article: Kingdom of Strathclyde The main language of Strathclyde and elsewhere in the hen Ogledd in the opening years of the high Middle Ages was Cumbric, a variety of the British language akin to Old Welsh.

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The various kingdoms that comprised Scotland circa 1100 After Ragnall ua ímair, Amlaíb cuarán, who fought at the battle of Brunanburh in 937 and who also became king of Northumbria, is the next King of the Isles on record. 27 28 In the succeeding years Norse sources also list various rulers such as Gilli, sigurd the Stout, håkon Eiriksson 29 and Thorfinn Sigurdsson as rulers over the hebrides as vassals of the kings of Norway or Denmark. Godred Crovan became the ruler of Dublin and Mann from and from the early years of the twelfth century the Crovan dynasty asserted themselves and ruled as "Kings of Mann and the Isles" for the next half century. The kingdom was then sundered due to the actions of Somerled whose sons inherited the southern Hebrides while the manx rulers held on to the "north isles" for another century. 32 The north edit The Scandinavian influence in Scotland was probably at its height in the mid eleventh century 33 during the time of Thorfinn Sigurdsson, who attempted to create a single political and ecclesiastical domain stretching from Shetland to man. 34 The permanent Scandinavian holdings in Scotland at that time must therefore have been at least a quarter of the land area of modern resume Scotland. Note 3 by the end of the eleventh century the norwegian crown had come to accept that caithness was held by the earls of Orkney as a fiefdom from the kings of Scotland although its Norse character was retained throughout the thirteenth century.

40 Raghnall mac Gofraidh was granted caithness after assisting the Scots king in a conflict with Harald Maddadson, an earl of Orkney in the early thirteenth century. Note 4 In the ninth century Orcadian control stretched into moray, which was a semi-independent kingdom for much of this early period. 43 The moray rulers MacBeth (10401057) and his successor Lulach (10571058) became rulers of the entire Scottish kingdom for a time. 44 However, moray was subjugated by the Scottish kings after 1130, when the native ruler, óengus of Moray was killed leading a rebellion. Another revolt in 1187 was equally unsuccessful.

11 Note 1 The south-east had been absorbed by the English Kingdom of Bernicia/Northumbria in the seventh century. Galloway in the south west was a lordship with some regality. In a galwegian charter dated to the reign of Fergus, the galwegian ruler styled himself rex Galwitensium, king of Galloway. 13 In the north east the ruler of Moray was called not only "king" in both Scandinavian and Irish sources, but before máel Snechtai, "King of Alba". 14 However, when Domnall mac causantín died at Dunnottar in 900, he was the first man to be recorded as rí Alban 15 and his kingdom was the nucleus that would expand as viking and other influences waned. In the tenth century the Alban elite had begun to develop a conquest myth to explain their increasing gaelicisation at the expense of Pictish culture.

Known as MacAlpin's Treason, it describes how Cináed mac Ailpín is supposed to have annihilated the picts in one fell takeover. Note 2 However, modern historians are now beginning to reject this conceptualization of Scottish origins. 20 no contemporary sources mention this conquest. Moreover, the gaelicisation of Pictland was a long process predating Cináed, and is evidenced by gaelic-speaking Pictish rulers, 21 Pictish royal patronage of gaelic poets, 22 and gaelic inscriptions 23 and placenames. 24 The change of identity can perhaps be explained by the death of the pictish language, but also important may be causantín ii 's alleged Scoticisation of the "Pictish" Church 25 and the trauma caused by viking invasions, most strenuously felt in the pictish kingdom's. 26 Scandinavian-influenced territories edit kingdom of the Isles edit main article: Kingdom of the Isles The kingdom of the Isles comprised the hebrides, the islands of the firth of Clyde and the Isle of Man from the 9th to the 13th centuries. The islands were known to the norse as the suðreyjar, or "Southern Isles" as distinct from the norðreyjar or " Northern Isles " of Orkney and Shetland, which were held by the earls of Orkney as vassals of the norwegian crown throughout the high Middle.

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The main Norse texts were written in the early thirteenth century and should be treated with care. The English and Irish sources are more contemporary, but according to historian Alex woolf, may have "led to a southern bias in the story especially as much of the hebridean archipelago became norse-speaking during this period. 6 There are various traditional clan histories dating from the nineteenth century such as the "monumental" The Clan book Donald 7 and a significant corpus of material from the gaelic oral tradition that relates to this period, although their value is questionable. 8 Origins of the kingdom of Alba edit main articles: Origins of the kingdom of Alba and Scandinavian Scotland sueno's Stone located in Forres, in the old kingdom of Fortriu, this gigantic probably post-Pictish monument marks some kind of military triumph At the close. The pictish and gaelic Kingdom of Alba had just been united in the east; the Scandinavian-influenced Kingdom of the Isles emerged in the west. Ragnall ua ímair was a key figure at this time although the extent to which he ruled territory in western and northern Scotland including the hebrides and Northern Isles is unknown as contemporary sources are silent on this matter. 9 Dumbarton, the capital of the kingdom of Strathclyde essay had been sacked by the uí ímair in 870. 10 This was clearly a major assault, which may have brought the whole of mainland Scotland under temporary uí imair control.

middle ages paper

1 2 Normanists, such. Barrow, are concerned with the norman and Scoto-norman cultures introduced to Scotland after the eleventh century. For much of the twentieth century, historians tended to stress the cultural change that took place in Scotland during this time. 3 However, scholars such as Cynthia neville and Richard Oram, while not ignoring cultural changes, argue that continuity with the gaelic past was just as, if not more, important. 4 Since the publication of Scandinavian Scotland by barbara. Crawford in 1987, there has been a growing volume of work dedicated to the understanding of Norse influence in this period. However, from 849 salon on, when Columba 's relics were removed from Iona in the face of viking incursions, written evidence from local sources in the areas under Scandinavian influence all but vanishes for three hundred years. 5 The sources for information about the hebrides and indeed much of northern Scotland from the eighth to the eleventh century, are thus almost exclusively Irish, English or Norse.

English language. These developments were offset by the acquisition of the norse-gaelic west and the gaelicisation of many of the noble families of French and Anglo-French origin. National cohesion was fostered with the creation of various unique religious and cultural practices. By the end of the period, Scotland experienced a "Gaelic revival which created an integrated Scottish national identity. By 1286, these economic, institutional, cultural, religious and legal developments had brought Scotland closer to its neighbours in England and the continent, although outsiders continued to view Scotland as a provincial, even savage place. By this date, the kingdom of Scotland had political boundaries that closely resembled those of the modern nation. Contents Historiography edit Scotland in the high Middle Ages is a relatively well-studied topic and Scottish medievalists have produced a wide variety of publications. Some, such as david Dumville, thomas Owen Clancy and dauvit Broun, are primarily interested in the native cultures of the country, and often have linguistic training in the celtic languages.

Kingdom of Northumbria in the southeast and the, pictish and, gaelic. Kingdom of Alba in the east, north of the. By the tenth and eleventh centuries, northern. Great Britain was increasingly dominated by resume gaelic culture, and by the gaelic regal lordship. Alba, known in, latin as either, albania or, scotia, and. From its base in the east, this kingdom acquired control of the lands lying to the south and ultimately the west and much of the north. It had a flourishing culture, comprising part of the larger gaelic-speaking world and an economy dominated by agriculture and trade. After the twelfth-century reign of, king david i, the, scottish monarchs are better described.

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Dunnottar Castle in the, mearns occupies one of the best defensive locations in Great Britain. The site was in use throughout the high Middle Ages, and the castle itself dates to the fourteenth century. The, high Middle Ages of Scotland encompass, scotland in the era between the death. Domnall ii in 900 ad and the death of King. Alexander iii in 1286, which was an indirect cause of the. Scottish Wars of Independence. At the close of the ninth century, various competing kingdoms occupied the territory of modern Scotland. Scandinavian influence was dominant in the northern and western islands, Brythonic culture in the southwest, the Anglo-saxon or English.

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