Transcendentalism was closely connected to the Unitarian Church, web 5 which in India collaborated with Ram Mohan roy (17721833) and his Brahmo samaj. He found that Unitarianism came closest to true christianity, and had a strong sympathy for the Unitarians. This influence worked through on vivekananda, whose modern but idiosyncratic interpretation of Hinduism became widely popular in the west. Vipassana meditation, presented as a centuries-old meditation system, was a 19th-century reinvention, which gained popularity in south-east due to the accessibility of the buddhist sutras through English translations from the pali text Society. It was brought to western attention in the 19th century by the Theosophical Society. Zen Buddhism first gained popularity in the west through the writings. Suzuki, who attempted to present a modern interpretation of Zen, adjusted to western tastes. Jon Kabat-Zinn and mbsr edit In 1979, jon Kabat-Zinn founded the mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (mbsr) program at the University of Massachusetts to treat the chronically ill.
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65 It leads to insight into the true nature of resume reality, namely the three marks of existence, the impermanence of and the unsatisfactoriness of every conditioned thing that exists, and non-self. 7 With this insight, the practitioner becomes a socalled Sotāpanna, a "stream-enterer the first stage on the path to liberation. 66 57 Vipassana is practiced in tandem with samatha, and also plays a central role in other Buddhist traditions. 67 According to paul Williams, referring to Erich Frauwallner, mindfulness provided the way in early buddhism to liberation, "constantly watching sensory experience in order to prevent the arising of cravings which would power future experience into rebirths." note 7 According to vetter, dhyana may have. According to Rhys davids, the doctrine of mindfulness is "perhaps the most important" after the four Noble Truths and the noble eightfold Path. Rhys davids viewed the teachings of Gotama as a rational technique for self-actualization and rejected a few parts of it, mainly the doctrine of rebirth, as residual superstitions. 70 Transcendentalism edit kabat-Zinn himself refers to Thoreau as a predecessor of the interest in mindfulness, together with the other eminent Transcendentalists Emerson and Whitman: The collective experience note 8 of sages, yogis, and Zen masters offers a view of the world which is complementary. But this view is neither particularly "Eastern" nor mystical. Thoreau saw the same problem with our ordinary mind state in New England in 1846 and wrote with great passion about its unfortunate consequences. The forms of Asian religion and spirituality which were introduced in the west were themselves influenced by Transcendentalism and other 19th-century manifestations of Western esotericism.
Shinzen young says a person is mindful when they have mindful awareness, and write defines that to be when "concentration power, sensory clarity, and equanimity are working together." 58 John Yates (Culadasa) defines mindfulness to be "the optimal interaction between attention and peripheral awareness where. 59 Other usages edit The English term mindfulness already existed before it came to be used in a (western) Buddhist context. It was first recorded as myndfulness in 1530 ( John Palsgrave translates French pensée as mindfulnesse in 1561, and mindfulness in 1817. Morphologically earlier terms include mindful (first recorded in 1340 mindfully (1382 and the obsolete mindiness (ca. 60 According to the merriam-Webster Dictionary, mindfulness may also refer to "a state of being aware". Web 2 Synonyms for this "state of being aware" are wakefulness, attention, web 3 alertness, web 4 prudence, web 4 conscientiousness, web 4 awareness, web 2 consciousness, web 2 observation. Web 2 measurement edit The five facet Mindfulness questionnaire (ffmq) is sometimes used to measure mindfulness level. Historical development edit buddhism edit mindfulness as a modern, western practice is founded on modern note 6 vipassana, and the training of sati, which means "moment to moment awareness of present events but also "remembering to be aware of something".
Sensory consciousness: refers to input from the five senses (seeing, hearing, smelling, tasting or touch sensations) or a thought that happen to arise in the mind. This model describes that sensory consciousness result in the generation of feelings, perception or volition, and that individuals previously conditioned attitudes and past associations influence this generation. The five aggregates are described as constantly arising and ceasing in the present moment. 32 Cultivating self-knowledge and wisdom edit The practice of mindfulness can be utilized to gradually develop self-knowledge and wisdom. 7 In this regard, buddhist teachings provide detailed instructions on how one can carry out an inquiry into the nature of the mind, and this guidance can help one to make sense of ones subjective experience. This could include understanding what the present moment is, how various thoughts, etc., arise following input from the senses, the conditioned nature of thoughts, and other realizations. 7 In Buddhist teachings, ultimate wisdom refers to gaining deep insight into all phenomena or seeing things as they are. 57 7 Definitions arising in modern teaching of meditation edit since the 1970s, most books on meditation use definitions of mindfulness similar to jon Kabat-Zinn 's definition as "present moment awareness". However, recently a number of teachers of meditation have proposed quite different definitions of mindfulness.
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Two-component model edit In a paper that described a consensus among clinical psychologists on an operational and testable definition, bishop, lau,. (2004) 53 proposed a two-component model of mindfulness: The first component involves the self-regulation of attention so that it is maintained on immediate experience, thereby allowing for increased recognition of mental events in the present moment. The second component involves adopting a particular orientation toward ones experiences in the present moment, an orientation that is characterized by curiosity, openness, and acceptance. 53 :232 In this two-component model, self-regulated attention (the first component) "involves bringing awareness to current experience - observing and attending to the changing fields of "objects" (thoughts, feelings, sensations from moment to moment - by regulating the focus of attention". Orientation to experience (the second component) involves maintaining an attitude of curiosity about objects experienced at each moment, and about where and how the mind wanders when it drifts from the selected focus of attention. Clients are asked to avoid trying to produce a particular state (i.e. Relaxation but rather to just notice each object that arises in the stream of consciousness.
53 :233 The five-aggregate model edit An ancient model of the mind, generally known as the five-aggregate model 32 enables essays one to understand the moment-to-moment manifestation of subjective conscious experience, and therefore can be a potentially useful theoretical resource to guide mindfulness interventions. The five aggregates are described as follows: Material form: includes both the physical body and external matter where material elements are continuously moving to and from the material body. Feelings: can be pleasant, unpleasant or neutral. Perceptions: represent being aware of attributes of an object (e.g. Color, shape, etc.) Volition: represents bodily, verbal, or psychological behavior.
7 Trait, state and practice edit According to Brown, ryan, and Creswell, definitions of mindfulness are typically selectively interpreted based on who is studying it and how it is applied. Some have viewed mindfulness as a mental state, while others have viewed it as a set of skills and techniques. 33 A distinction can also be made between the state of mindfulness and the trait of mindfulness. According to david. Black, whereas "mindfulness" originally was associated with esoteric beliefs and religion, and "a capacity attainable only by certain people scientific researchers have translated the term into measurable terms, providing a valid operational definition of mindfulness. Note 4 Black mentions three possible domains: A trait, a dispositional characteristic (a relatively long lasting trait a person's tendency to more frequently enter into and more easily abide in mindful states; A state, an outcome (a state of awareness resulting from mindfulness training being.
Note 5 Trait-like constructs edit According to Brown, mindfulness is: A quality of consciousness manifest in, but not isomorphic with, the activities through which it is enhanced." 33 several mindfulness measures have been developed which are based on self-reporting of trait-like constructs: Mindful Attention Awareness. The State mindfulness Scale (SMS) is a 21-item survey with an overall state mindfulness scale, and 2 sub-scales (state mindfulness of mind, and state mindfulness of body). 54 Mindfulness-practice edit mindfulness as a practice is described as: "Mindfulness is a way of paying attention that originated in Eastern meditation practices" 55 "paying attention in a particular way: on purpose, in the present moment, and nonjudgmentally" 1 "Bringing ones complete attention to the. Hick, mindfulness practice involves both formal and informal meditation practices, and nonmeditation-based exercises. Formal mindfulness, or meditation, is the practice of sustaining attention on body, breath or sensations, or whatever arises in each moment. Informal mindfulness is the application of mindful attention in everyday life. Nonmeditation-based exercises are specifically used in dialectical behavior therapy and in acceptance and commitment therapy.
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Dunne asserts that the year translation of sati and smṛti as mindfulness is confusing. A number of Buddhist scholars have started trying to establish "retention" as the preferred alternative. 40 Bhikkhu bodhi also daddy points to the meaning of "sati" as "memory". 41 note 3 The terms sati/smriti have been translated as: Attention (Jack kornfield) Awareness Concentrated attention (Mahasi sayadaw) Inspection (Herbert guenther) Mindful attention Mindfulness Recollecting mindfulness (Alexander Berzin) Recollection (Erik pema kunsang, buddhadasa Bhikkhu) Reflective awareness (Buddhadasa Bhikkhu) Remindfulness (James. Austin) 42 Retention Self-recollection (Jack kornfield) Psychology edit. Feldman have highlighted that mindfulness can be seen as a strategy that stands in contrast to a strategy of avoidance of emotion on the one hand and to the strategy of emotional overengagement on the other hand. 43 Mindfulness can also be viewed as a means to develop self-knowledge and wisdom.
2 Translations and definitions edit buddhism edit mindfulness meditation is part of Buddhist psychological traditions and the developing scholarship within empirical psychology. 7 32 33 Sati and smṛti edit The buddhist term translated into English as "mindfulness" originates in the pali term sati and in its Sanskrit counterpart smṛti. According to robert Sharf, the meaning of these terms has been the topic of extensive debate and discussion. Smṛti originally meant poetry "to remember "to recollect "to bear in mind as in the vedic tradition of remembering the sacred texts. The term sati also means "to remember." In the satipaṭhāna-sutta the term sati means to remember the dharmas, whereby the true nature of phenomena can be seen. Sharf refers to the milindapañha, which explained that the arisement of sati calls to mind the wholesome dhammas such as the four establishings of mindfulness, the five faculties, the five powers, the seven awakening-factors, the noble eight-factored path, and the attainment of insight. According to rupert Gethin, sati should be understood as what allows awareness of the full range and extent of dhammas ; sati is an awareness of things in relation to things, and hence an awareness of their relative value. Applied to the satipaṭhānas, presumably what this means is that sati is what causes the practitioner of yoga to "remember" that any feeling he may experience exists in relation to a whole variety or world of feelings that may be skillful or unskillful, with faults. 37 Noting that Daniel John Gogerly (1845) initially rendered sammā-sati as "Correct meditation 38 davids explained: sati is literally 'memory' but is used with reference to the constantly repeated phrase 'mindful and thoughtful' ( sato sampajâno and means that activity of mind and constant presence.
sensations of breathing in the proximity of ones nostrils or to the movements of the abdomen when breathing. Web 1 1 In this meditation practice, one does not try to control ones breathing, but attempts to simply be aware of ones natural breathing process/rhythm. 2 When engaged in this practice, the mind will often run off to other thoughts and associations, and if this happens, one passively notices that the mind has wandered, and in an accepting, non-judgmental way, returns to focusing on breathing. Other meditation exercises to develop mindfulness include body-scan meditation where attention is directed at various areas of the body and noting body sensations that happen in the present moment. 2 1 Engaging in yoga practices, while attending to movements and body sensations, as well as walking meditation are other methods of developing mindfulness. 2 1 One could also focus on sounds, sensations, thoughts, feelings and actions that happen in the present. 2 27 In this regard, a famous exercise, introduced by kabat-Zinn in his mbsr program, is the mindful tasting of a raisin, in which a raisin is being tasted and eaten mindfully. Note 1 Meditators are recommended to start with short periods of 10 minutes or so of meditation practice per day. As one practices regularly, it becomes easier to keep the attention focused on breathing.
11 12, clinical psychology and psychiatry since the 1970s have developed a number of therapeutic applications based on mindfulness for helping people who are experiencing a variety of psychological conditions. 10, for example, mindfulness practice is being employed to reduce depression symptoms, to reduce stress, anxiety, and in the treatment of drug addiction. The practice of mindfulness also appears to provide numerous therapeutic benefits to people with psychosis, 21 22 and may also be a preventive strategy to halt the development of mental health problems. 23 Clinical studies have documented both physical and mental health benefits of mindfulness in different patient categories as well as in healthy adults and children. 3 24 25 Programs based on Kabat-Zinn's and similar models have been widely adopted in schools, prisons, hospitals, veterans' centers, and other environments, and mindfulness programs have been applied for additional outcomes such as for healthy aging, weight management, athletic performance, for children with special. The necessity for more high-quality research in this field has also been identified such as the need for more randomized controlled studies, for providing more methodological details in reported business studies and for the use of larger sample sizes. 3 26 Contents Meditation method edit mindfulness meditation involves the process of developing the skill of bringing ones attention to whatever is happening in the present moment.
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For other uses, see, mindfulness (disambiguation). Mindfulness is the listing psychological process of bringing one's attention to experiences occurring in the present moment, 1 2 3 which can be developed through the practice of meditation and other training. 2 4 5, the term "mindfulness correlates with the. Pali term sati, 6 which is a significant element of Buddhist traditions. 7 8, in Buddhist teachings, mindfulness is utilized to develop self-knowledge and wisdom that gradually lead to what is described as enlightenment or the complete freedom from suffering. 7, the recent when? popularity of mindfulness in the modern context is generally considered to have been initiated. 9 10, studies have shown that rumination and worry contribute to mental illnesses such as depression and anxiety, 11 3 and that mindfulness-based interventions are effective in the reduction of both rumination and worry.