37 China's energy consumption is mostly driven by the industry sector, the majority of which comes from coal consumption. 38 World annual coal production increased 1,905 Mt or 32 in 6 years in 2011 compared to 2005, of which over 70 was in China and 8 in India. Coal production was in 2011 7,7 6,903 Mt, equal.7 production increase in two years. 39 If production and consumption of coal continue at the rate as in 2008, proven and economically recoverable world reserves of coal would last for about 150 years. This is much more than needed for an irreversible climate catastrophe. Coal is the largest source of carbon dioxide emissions in the world. According to james Hansen the single most important action needed to tackle the climate crisis is to reduce co2 emissions from coal. 40 Indonesia and Australia exported together.1 of the world coal export in 2011.
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Large amounts of pollutants such as sulphurous oxides (SOx nitrous oxides (NOx and mahatma particulate matter (PM) are produced from the combustion of fossil fuels and biomass; the world health Organisation estimates that 7 million premature essay deaths are caused each year by air pollution. 33 biomass combustion is a major contributor. In addition to producing air pollution like fossil fuel combustion, most biomass has high CO2 emissions. 36 by source edit total primary energy supply of 13,699 mega- toe by source in 2014 (iea, 2016) 14 8 :28 Oil (31.3) coal/Peat/Shale (28.6) Natural Gas (21.2) biofuels and waste (10.3) Hydro Electricity (2.4) Others ( Renew. ) (1.4) Nuclear (4.8) Fossil fuels edit main article: Fossil fuel The twentieth century saw a rapid twenty-fold increase in the use of fossil fuels. Between 19, the worldwide annual growth rate was. 22 According to the us energy Information Administration 's 2006 estimate, the estimated 471.8 EJ total consumption in 2004, was divided as given in the table above, with fossil fuels supplying 86 of the world's energy: coal edit main articles: coal and List of countries. The single greatest coal-consuming country is China. Its share of the world coal production was 28 in 2000 and rose to 48 in 2009. In contrast to China's 70 increase in coal consumption, world coal use increased to 2009. In practice, the majority of this growth occurred in China and the rest in other Asia.
Fossil fuels are dominant in the global energy mix, supported by 523 fuller billion subsidies in 2011, up almost 30 on 2010 and six times more than subsidies to renewables. 28 Emissions edit Global warming emissions resulting from energy production are an environmental problem. Efforts to resolve this include the kyoto Protocol, which is a un agreement aiming to reduce harmful climate impacts, which a number of nations have signed. Limiting global temperature increase to 2 degrees Celsius, thought to be a risk by the sei, is now doubtful. To limit global temperature to a hypothetical 2 degrees Celsius rise would demand a 75 decline in carbon emissions in industrial countries by 2050, if the population is 10 billion in 2050. 31 Across 40 years, this averages to a 2 decrease every year. In 2011, the emissions of energy production continued rising regardless of the consensus of the basic problem. Hypothetically, according to robert Engelman (Worldwatch institute in order to prevent collapse, human civilization would have to stop increasing emissions within a decade regardless of the economy or population (2009). 32 Greenhouse gases are not the only emissions of energy production and consumption.
25 Most of the world's high energy resources are from the conversion of the sun's rays to other energy forms after being incident upon the planet. Some of that energy has been preserved as fossil energy, some is directly or indirectly usable; for example, via solar PV/thermal, wind, hydro- or wave power. The total solar irradiance is measured by satellite to be roughly 1361 watts per square meter (see solar constant ), though it fluctuates by about.9 during the year due to the earth's varying distance from the sun. This value, after multiplication by the cross-sectional area intercepted by the earth, is the total rate of solar energy received by the planet; about half, 89,000 tw, reaches the earth's surface. 26 The estimates of remaining non-renewable worldwide energy resources vary, with the remaining fossil fuels totaling an estimated.4 yottajoule ( yj ) or 4 1023 joules, and the available nuclear fuel such as uranium exceeding.5 YJ. Fossil fuels range from.6 to 3 yj if estimates of reserves of methane clathrates are accurate and become technically extractable. The total power flux from the sun intercepting the earth.5 YJ per year, though not all of this is available for human consumption. The iea estimates for the world to meet global energy demand for the two decades from 2015 to 2035 it will require investment of 48 trillion and "credible policy frameworks." 27 According to iea (2012) the goal of limiting warming to 2 C is becoming more. If action is not taken before 2017, co2 emissions would be locked-in by energy infrastructure existing in 2017.
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In 2008, total worldwide primary energy resume consumption was 132,000 terawatt-hours ( TWh ) or 474 exajoules ( ej ). 22 In 2012, primary energy demand increased to 158,000 TWh (567 EJ). 23 Energy consumption in big the G20 increased by more than 5 in 2010 after a slight decline of 2009. In 2009, world energy consumption decreased for the first time in 30 years.1, or about 130 million tonnes of oil equivalent ( Mtoe as a result of the financial and economic crisis, which reduced world gdp.6 in 2009. 24 This evolution is the result of two contrasting trends: Energy consumption growth remained vigorous in several developing countries, specifically in Asia (4).
Conversely, in oecd, consumption was severely cut.7 in 2009 and was thus almost down to its 2000 levels. In North America, europe and the cis, consumptions shrank.5, 5 and.5 respectively due to the slowdown in economic activity. China became the world's largest energy consumer (18 of the total) since its consumption surged by (up from 4 in 2008). Oil remained the largest energy source (33) despite the fact that its share has been decreasing over time. Coal posted a growing role in the world's energy consumption: in 2009, it accounted for 27 of the total. Most energy is used in the country of origin, since it is cheaper to transport final products than raw materials. In 2008, the share export of the total energy production by fuel was: oil 50 (1,952/3,941 Mt gas 25 (800/3,149 bcm) and hard coal 14 (793/5,845 Mt).
Recently there has been a large increase in international agreements and national Energy Action Plans, such as the eu 2009 Renewable Energy directive, to increase the use of renewable energy due to the growing concerns about pollution from energy sources that come from fossil fuels. 4 17 One such initiative was the United Nations development Programme's World Energy Assessment in 2000 that highlighted many challenges humanity would have to overcome in order to shift from fossil fuels to renewable energy sources. 2012 renewable energy grew at a rate higher than any other point in history, with a consumption increase of 176.5 million tonnes of oil. During this period, oil, coal, and natural gas continued to grow and had increases that were much higher than the increase in renewable energy. The following figures illustrate the growth in consumption of fossil fuels such as oil, coal, and natural gas as well as renewable sources of energy during this period. 1 Trends edit Energy intensity of different economies: The graph shows the ratio between energy usage and gdp for selected countries.
Gdp is based on 2004 purchasing power parity and 2000 dollars adjusted for inflation. 19 gdp and energy consumption in Japan, 19582000: The data shows the correlation between gdp and energy use; however, it also shows that this link can be broken. After the oil shocks of 19 the energy use stagnated while japan's gdp continued to grow, after 1985, under the influence of the then much cheaper oil, energy use resumed its historical relation to gdp. 20 The energy consumption growth in the G20 slowed down to 2 in 2011, after the strong increase of 2010. The economic crisis is largely responsible for this slow growth. For several years now, the world energy demand is characterized by the bullish Chinese and Indian markets, while developed countries struggle with stagnant economies, high oil prices, resulting in stable or decreasing energy consumption. 21 According to iea data from 1990 to 2008, the average energy use per person increased 10 while world population increased. Regional energy use also grew from 1990 to 2008: the middle east increased by 170, China by 146, India by 91, Africa by 70, latin America by 66, the usa by 20, the eu-27 block by 7, and world overall grew.
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1 Electricity generation edit The total amount of electricity consumed worldwide was 19,5, 16,5, 15,1, and 12,1By the end of 2014, the total installed electricity generating capacity worldwide was nearly.142 tw (million MW) which only includes generation connected to local electricity grids. 15 In addition there is an unknown amount of heat database and electricity consumed off-grid by isolated villages and industries. In 2014, the share of world energy consumption for electricity generation by source was coal.8, natural gas.6, nuclear.6, hydro.4, other sources (solar, wind, geothermal, biomass, etc.).3 and oil.3. Coal and natural gas were the most used energy fuels for generating electricity. The world's electricity consumption was 18,608 TWh citation needed in 2012. This figure is about 18 smaller than the generated electricity, due to grid losses, storage losses, and self-consumption from power plants ( gross generation ). Cogeneration (CHP) power stations use some of the heat that is otherwise wasted for use in buildings or in industrial processes. In 2016 while total world energy came from 80 fossil fuels, 10 biofuels, 5 nuclear and 5 renewable (hydro, wind, solar, geothermal only 18 of that total world energy was in the form of electricity. 16 write Most of the other 82 was used for heat and transportation.
5 Contents overview edit further information: Primary energy and List of countries by total primary energy consumption and production Energy supply, consumption and electricity edit key figures ( TWh ) year Primary energy supply ( tpes )1 Final energy consumption1 Electricity generation Ref 1973 71,013. For instance, when oil is extracted from the ground it must be refined into gasoline, so that it can be used in a car, and transported over long distances to gas stations where it can be used by consumers. World final energy consumption refers to the fraction of the world's primary energy that is used in its final form by humanity. In 2014, world primary energy supply amounted to 155,481 terawatt-hour (TWh) or 13,541 Mtoe, while the world final energy consumption was 109,613 TWh or about.5 less than the total supply. 10 World final energy consumption includes products as lubricants, asphalt and petrochemicals which have chemical energy content but are not used as fuel. This non-energy use amounted to 9,404 TWh (809 Mtoe) in 2012. 13 2014 World electricity generation (23,816 TWh) by source (iea, 2016) 14 coal/Peat (40.8) Natural Gas (21.6) Hydro (16.4) Nuclear happiest (10.6) Oil (4.3) Others ( Renewables ) (6.3) The United States Energy Information Administration (EIA) regularly publishes a report on world consumption for most types. For 2013, estimated world energy consumption was.67 1020 joules, or 157,481 TWh. According to the iea the total world energy consumption in past years was 143,8, 133,6, 117,6, and 102,53 In 2012 approximately 22 of world energy was consumed in North America, 5 was consumed south and Central America, 23 was consumed in Europe and Eurasia,.
The use of oil and natural gas also had considerable growth, followed by hydropower and renewable energy. Renewable energy grew at a rate faster than any other time in history during this period. The demand for nuclear energy decreased, in part due to nuclear disasters (e.g. Three mile Island 1979, Chernobyl 1986, and fukushima 2011). 1 4 In 2011, expenditures on energy totalled over 6 trillion usd, or about 10 of the world gross domestic product (GDP). Europe spends close to one-quarter of the world's energy expenditures, north America close to 20, and Japan.
Institutions such as the, international Energy Agency (iea the. Energy Information Administration (eia and the. European Environment Agency (EEA) record and publish energy data periodically. Improved data and understanding of World Energy consumption may reveal systemic trends and patterns, which could help frame current energy issues and encourage movement towards collectively useful solutions. Closely related to energy consumption is the concept of total primary energy supply (tpes which - on a global level - is the sum of energy production minus storage changes. Since changes of energy storage over the year are minor, tpes values can be used as an estimator for energy consumption. However, tpes ignores conversion efficiency, general overstating forms of energy with poor conversion efficiency (e.g. Coal, gas and nuclear ) and understating forms already accounted for in converted forms (e.g. Photovoltaic or hydroelectricity ).
Energy : Description and
See also: World energy resources and, worldwide energy supply, with this article needs to be updated. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. (October 2014 the world's energy consumption (2015 data). World total primary energy consumption by fuel in 2015 2, coal (30 natural Gas (24 hydro (. Renewables ) (7 nuclear (4 oil (33 others (. Renewables ) (2 world energy consumption is the total energy used by the entire human civilization. Typically measured per year, it involves all energy harnessed from every energy source applied towards humanity's endeavours across every single industrial and technological sector, across every country. It does not include energy from food, and the extent to which direct biomass burning has been accounted for is poorly documented. Being the power source metric of civilization, world Energy consumption has deep implications for humanity's socio-economic-political sphere.