Often, the body paragraph demonstrates and develops your topic sentence through an ordered, logical progression of ideas. There are a number of useful techniques for expanding on topic sentences and developing your ideas in a paragraph. Illustration in a paragraph supports a general statement by means of examples, details, or relevant"tions (with your comments). In Harrys world fate works not only through powers and objects such as prophecies, the sorting Hat, wands, and the goblet of Fire, but also through people. Repeatedly, other characters decide harrys future for him, depriving him of freedom and choice. For example, before his eleventh birthday, the dursleys control Harrys life, keeping from him knowledge of his past and understanding of his identity (Sorcerers 49).
Ending the Essay: Conclusions - harvard College Writing Center
But a thesis statement or topic plan sentence alone doesnt guarantee unity. An essay is unified if all the paragraphs relate to the thesis, whereas a paragraph is unified if all the sentences relate to the topic sentence. Note: Not all paragraphs need topic sentences. In particular, opening and closing paragraphs, which serve different functions from body paragraphs, generally dont have topic sentences. In academic writing, the topic sentence nearly always works best at the beginning of a paragraph so that the reader knows what to expect: The embrace of Twitter by politicians and journalists has been one of its most notable features in recent years: for both. —paul Bernal, a defence of Responsible Tweeting. This topic sentence forecasts the central idea or main point of the paragraph: politicians and journalists rely on Twitter. The rest of the paragraph will focus on these two Twitter-user groups, thereby fulfilling the promise made by the topic sentence. By avoiding irrelevant information that does not relate to the topic sentence, you can compose a unified paragraph. How do i develop my ideas in a paragraph?
Paragraphs add one idea at a time to your broader argument. How do i unify my ideas in a paragraph? Probably the most effective way to achieve paragraph unity is paper to express the central idea of the paragraph in a topic sentence. Topic sentences are similar to mini thesis statements. Like a thesis statement, a topic sentence has a specific main point. Whereas the thesis is the main point of the essay, the topic sentence is the main point of the paragraph. Like the thesis statement, a topic sentence has a unifying function.
Resist the urge to apologize. If you've immersed yourself in your subject, you now know a good deal more about it than you can possibly include in a five- or ten- or 20-page essay. As a result, by the time you've finished writing, you may be having some doubts about what you've produced. (And if you haven't immersed yourself in your subject, you may be feeling even more doubtful about your essay as you approach the conclusion.) Repress those doubts. Don't undercut your authority by saying things like, "this is just one approach to the subject; there may be other, better approaches.". Copyright 1998, pat Bellanca, for the Writing Center at Harvard University. What is a paragraph? A paragraph is a series of related sentences developing a central idea, called the topic. Try to think about paragraphs in terms of thematic unity: a paragraph is a sentence or a group of sentences that supports one central, unified idea.
Paragraph Transitions - ucsb writing Program
Conclude by redefining one of the key terms of your travelogues argument. For example, an essay on Marx's treatment of the conflict between wage labor and capital might begin with Marx's claim that the "capitalist economy. A gigantic enterprise of dehumanization the essay might end by suggesting that Marxist analysis is itself dehumanizing because it construes everything in economic - rather than moral or ethical- terms. Conclude by considering the implications of your argument (or analysis or discussion). What does your argument imply, or involve, or suggest? For example, an essay on the novel. Ambiguous Adventure, by the senegalese writer Cheikh Hamidou kane, might open with the idea that the protagonist's development suggests Kane's belief in the need to integrate western materialism and Sufi spirituality in modern Senegal.
The conclusion might make the new but related point that the novel on the whole suggests that such an integration is (or isn't) possible. Finally, some advice on how not to end an essay: Don't simply summarize your essay. A brief summary of your argument may be useful, especially if your essay is long-more than ten pages. But shorter essays tend not to require a restatement of your main ideas. Avoid phrases like "in conclusion "to conclude "in summary and "to sum." These phrases can be useful-even welcome-in oral presentations. But readers can see, by the tell-tale compression of the pages, when an essay is about to end. You'll irritate your audience if you belabor the obvious.
To establish a sense of closure, you might do one or more of the following: Conclude by linking the last paragraph to the first, perhaps by reiterating a word or phrase you used at the beginning. Conclude with a sentence composed mainly of one-syllable words. Simple language can help create an effect of understated drama. Conclude with a sentence that's compound or parallel in structure; such sentences can establish a sense of balance or order that may feel just right at the end of a complex discussion. To close the discussion without closing it off, you might do one or more of the following: Conclude with a"tion from or reference to a primary or secondary source, one that amplifies your main point or puts it in a different perspective.
A"tion from, say, the novel or poem you're writing about can add texture and specificity to your discussion; a critic or scholar can help confirm or complicate your final point. For example, you might conclude an essay on the idea of home in James joyce's short story collection, dubliners, with information about joyce's own complex feelings towards Dublin, his home. Or you might end with a biographer's statement about joyce's attitude toward Dublin, which could illuminate his characters' responses to the city. Just be cautious, especially about using secondary material: make sure that you get the last word. Conclude by setting your discussion into a different, perhaps larger, context. For example, you might end an essay on nineteenth-century muckraking journalism by linking it to a current news magazine program like 60 Minutes.
How to begin a new paragraph
She sprinted like usain Bolt. On our high school swim team, she kicked like michael Phelps, double lapping. Would i ever achieve what my sister had? The question plagued. The burdensome feeling of proposal fear weighed on my shoulders like the world pressing on Atlass shoulders. Home writing resources strategies for essay writing so much is at stake in writing a conclusion. This is, after all, your last chance to persuade your readers to your point of view, to impress yourself upon them as a writer and thinker. And the impression you create in your conclusion will shape the impression that stays with your readers after they've finished proposal the essay. The end of an essay should therefore convey a sense of completeness and closure as well as a sense of the lingering possibilities of the topic, its larger meaning, its implications: the final paragraph should close the discussion without closing it off.
Because she deserves a major break, i am gratified that she has come to visit. I feel partially happy that they flew here. To worry about the disaster that her brother will make is senseless; instead I will focus on having a sensational time with Hannah. Here is a similar assignment by the same student when she was a ninth grader. The fear of not meeting my own expectations intensified until I felt paralyzed. I had an aversion to enroll in complicated classes in dread of failing. I loathed doing anything with my sister because she always managed to do it better than I did, whether it be marketing tennis, ice skating, swimming, or academic classes.
Here is an example of an esl fifth graders use of vocabulary words in a situation based on a life experience. . Her vocabulary words are underlined. Hannah, 12, and her younger brother, harry, 9, arrived here two days ago when my idle summer of ease ended. Eric is an immense problem to everyone except Steven (my kin). He flails his arms when he cant play wii, making us uneasy. Our guest is addicted to technology such as the wii, computer and. Affecting us with his boisterous personality, he makes it hard for me to be tolerant. Hannah, his sister and a former friend of mine from taiwan, does not provoke me; instead her delightful personality captivates my time.
They need to know if the word they are using is a noun which might be used as a subject and go early in the sentence, or if it is an adverb guaranteed which might go just about anywhere. They might not consciously think, is exploit a noun? But they need to listen in their minds to hear if it sounds right where they are placing. Almost all students need practice spelling new vocabulary words. Spelling as a separate subject is not taught once students reach middle grades, yet students still need to repeat spelling words in order to make the spelling stick. They get that practice when they write the vocabulary words in sentences. Creating a group of related sentences using particular words takes thought.
Useful linking words and phrases
Sometimes essay teachers assign students to create a paragraph or two using vocabulary words they are learning in class. This can be a worthwhile writing assignment. Many times students know the meaning(s) of a word, but they cannot use the word properly in sentences. Esl students, especially, need work in usage. They might not know the part of speech a word is, or the past participle of a word if it is a verb, or if a word needs to be followed by a preposition and if so which preposition. . Students need practice using words and getting feed back on how the words are used. Esl students (as well as some native english speakers) also need work in coherence, this is, putting words in the proper order to make sense.