By 1914 there were 1,000,000 coal miners in Scotland. The stereotype emerged early on of Scottish colliers as brutish, non-religious and socially isolated serfs; 34 that was an exaggeration, for their life style resembled coal miners everywhere, with a strong emphasis on masculinity, egalitarianism, group solidarity, and support for radical labour movements. 35 Britain was the world leader in the construction of railways, and their use to expand trade and coal supplies. The first successful locomotive-powered line in Scotland, between Monkland and Kirkintilloch, opened in 1831. 36 Not only was good passenger service established by the late 1840s, but an excellent network of freight lines reduce the cost of shipping coal, and made products manufactured in Scotland competitive throughout Britain. For example, railways opened the london market to Scottish beef and milk. They enabled the Aberdeen Angus to become a cattle breed of worldwide reputation. 37 38 Urbanisation edit main article: Demographic history of Scotland Scotland was already one of the most urbanised societies in Europe by 1800.
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28 It joined the established Scottish banks such as the bank of Scotland (Edinburgh, 1695) and the royal Bank of Scotland (Edinburgh, 1727). 29 help Glasgow would soon follow and Scotland had a flourishing financial system by the end of the century. There were over 400 branches, amounting to one office per 7000 people, double the level in England. The banks were more lightly regulated than those in England. Historians often emphasise that the flexibility and dynamism of the Scottish banking system contributed significantly to the rapid development of the economy in the 19th century. 30 31 From about 1790 textiles became the most important industry in the west of Scotland, especially the spinning and weaving of cotton, which flourished until in 1861 the American civil War cut off the supplies of raw cotton. 32 The industry never recovered, but by that time Scotland had developed heavy industries based on its coal and iron resources. The invention of the hot blast for smelting iron (1828) revolutionised the Scottish iron industry. As a result, Scotland became a centre for engineering, shipbuilding and the production of locomotives. Toward the end of the 19th century, steel production largely replaced iron production. 33 The headgear at Francis Colliery, fife coal mining beauty became a major industry, and continued to grow into the 20th century, producing the fuel to heat homes, factories and drive steam engines, locomotives and steamships.
26 Scottish industrial policy was made by the board of Trustees for Fisheries and Manufactures in Scotland, which sought to build an economy complementary, not competitive, with England. Since England had woollens, this meant linen. Encouraged and subsidised by the board of Trustees so it could compete with German products, merchant entrepreneurs became dominant in all stages of linen manufacturing and built up the market share of Scottish linens, especially in the American colonial market. 27 The British Linen Company, established in 1746, was the largest firm fuller in the Scottish linen industry in the 18th century, exporting linen to England and America. As a joint-stock company, it had the right to raise funds through the issue of promissory notes or bonds. With its bonds functioning as bank notes, the company gradually moved into the business of lending and discounting to other linen manufacturers, and in the early 1770s banking became its main activity. Renamed the British Linen Bank in 1906, it was one of Scotland's premier banks until it was bought out by the bank of Scotland in 1969.
Scotland in 1750 was still a poor rural, agricultural society with a population.3 million. 20 Some progress was visible, such as the sales of linen and cattle to England, the cash flows from military service, and the tobacco trade that was dominated by Glasgow after 1740. The clippers belonging to the Glasgow Tobacco lords were the fastest ships on the route to virginia. 21 Merchants who profited from the American trade began investing in leather, textiles, iron, coal, sugar, rope, sailcloth, glassworks, breweries, and soapworks, setting the foundations for the city's emergence as a leading industrial centre after 1815. 22 The tobacco trade collapsed during the American revolution (177683 when it sources were cut off by the British blockade of American ports. However, trade with the west Indies began to make up for the loss of the tobacco business, 23 reflecting the extensive growth of the cotton industry, the British demand for sugar and the demand in the west Indies for herring and linen goods. During 17501815, 78 Glasgow merchants not only specialised in the importation of sugar, cotton, and rum from the west Indies, but diversified their interests by purchasing West Indian plantations, Scottish estates, or cotton mills. They were not to be self-perpetuating due to the hazards of the trade, the incident of bankruptcy, and the changing complexity of Glasgow's economy. 24 The former headquarters of the British Linen Bank in St Andrews Square, edinburgh Linen was Scotland's premier industry in the 18th century and formed the basis for the later cotton, jute, 25 and woollen industries.
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The removal of legislation on lay patronage allowed the majority of the Free church to rejoin Church of Scotland in 1929. The schisms left small denominations including the Free presbyterians and a remnant as the Free church from 1900. 17 by the mid-18th century, catholicism had been reduced to the fringes of the country, particularly the gaelic -speaking areas of the highlands and Islands. Conditions grew worse for Catholics after the jacobite risings and Catholicism was reduced to little more than a poorly run mission. However, catholic Emancipation in 1829 and the influx of large numbers of Irish immigrants, particularly after the famine years of the late 1840s, principally to the growing lowland centres like glasgow, sales led to a transformation of its fortunes. In 1878, despite opposition, book a roman Catholic ecclesiastical hierarchy was restored to the country, and Catholicism became a significant denomination within Scotland. 17 Also important was Episcopalianism, which had retained supporters through the civil wars and changes of regime in the 17th century.
Since most Episcopalians had given their support to the jacobite risings in the early 18th century they suffered a decline in fortunes, but revived in the 19th as the issue of succession receded, becoming established as the Episcopal Church in Scotland in 1804,. 17 Baptist, congregationalist and Methodist churches also appeared in Scotland in the 18th century, but did not begin significant growth until the 19th century, 17 partly because more radical and evangelical traditions already existed within the Church of Scotland and the free churches. From 1879 they were joined by the evangelical revivalism of the salvation Army, which attempted to make major inroads in the growing urban centres. 18 Industrial revolution edit new Lanark, cotton mills and housing on the river Clyde, founded in 1786 main articles: Economic history of Scotland and Industrial revolution in Scotland During the Industrial revolution, scotland became one of the commercial and industrial centres of the British Empire. 19 With tariffs with England now abolished, the potential for trade for Scottish merchants was considerable, especially with Colonial America. However, the economic benefits of union were very slow to appear, primarily because Scotland was too poor to exploit the opportunities of the greatly expanded free market.
14 The focus of the Scottish Enlightenment ranged from intellectual and economic matters to the specifically scientific as in the work of William Cullen, physician and chemist, james Anderson, an agronomist, joseph Black, physicist and chemist, and James Hutton, the first modern geologist. 11 15 While the Scottish Enlightenment is traditionally considered to have concluded toward the end of the 18th century, 12 disproportionately large Scottish contributions to British science and letters continued for another 50 years or more, thanks to such figures as James Hutton, james Watt. 16 Religion edit main article: History of Christianity in Scotland An 18th-century congregation The late 18th and 19th centuries saw a fragmentation of the Church of Scotland that had been created in the reformation. These fractures were prompted by issues of government and patronage, but reflected a wider division between the evangelicals and the moderate party over fears of fanaticism by the former and the acceptance of Enlightenment ideas by the latter. The legal right of lay patrons to present clergymen of their choice to local ecclesiastical livings led to minor schisms from the church. The first in 1733, known as the first Secession, led to the creation of a series of secessionist churches.
The second in 1761 lead to the foundation of the independent Relief Church. 17 gaining strength in the evangelical revival of the later 18th century 18 and after prolonged years of struggle, in 1834 the evangelicals gained control of the general Assembly and passed the veto Act, which allowed congregations to reject unwanted "intrusive" presentations to livings. The following "Ten years' conflict" of legal and political wrangling ended in defeat for the non-intrusionists in the civil courts. The result was a schism from the church by some of the non-intrusionists led by Dr Thomas Chalmers known as the Great Disruption of 1843. Roughly a third of the clergy, mainly from the north and Highlands, formed the separate Free church of Scotland. In the late 19th century the major debates were between fundamentalist Calvinists and theological liberals, who rejected a literal interpretation of the bible. This resulted in a further split in the Free church as the rigid Calvinists broke away to form the Free presbyterian Church in 1893. 17 There were, however, also moves towards reunion, beginning with the unification of some secessionist churches into the United Secession Church in 1820, which united with the relief Church in 1847 to form the United Presbyterian Church, which in turn joined with the Free church.
Navajos - history, modern era, the first navajos
A moral philosopher who produced alternatives to the ideas of Thomas Hobbes, one of his major contributions to world thought was the utilitarian and consequentialist principle that virtue is that which provides, in his words, "the greatest happiness for the greatest numbers". Much of what is incorporated in the scientific method (the nature of knowledge, evidence, experience, and causation) and some modern attitudes towards the relationship between science and religion were developed by his proteges david Hume and Adam Smith. 11 Hume became a major figure in the sceptical philosophical and empiricist traditions of philosophy. He and other Scottish Enlightenment thinkers developed what he called a ' science of man 12 which was expressed historically in works by authors including James Burnett, adam Ferguson, john Millar and William Robertson, all of whom merged a scientific study of how humans behave. Indeed, modern sociology largely originated from this movement. 13 Adam Smith developed and published The wealth of Nations, the first work on book modern economics. It had an immediate impact on British economic policy and still frames 21st century discussions on globalisation and tariffs.
2 The growing importance of the working classes was marked by keir Hardie 's success in the mid Lanarkshire by-election, 1888, leading to the foundation of the Scottish Labour Party, which was absorbed into the Independent Labour Party in 1895, with Hardie as its first. 7 The main unit of local government was the parish, and since it was also part of the church, the elders imposed public humiliation for what the locals considered immoral behaviour, including fornication, drunkenness, wife beating, cursing and Sabbath breaking. The main focus was on the poor and the landlords lairds and gentry, and their servants, were not subject to the parish's discipline. The policing system weakened after 1800 and disappeared in most writers places by the 1850s. 8 Enlightenment edit main article: Scottish Enlightenment Adam Smith. The "father of modern economics" In the 18th century, the Scottish Enlightenment brought the country to the front of intellectual achievement in Europe. Perhaps the poorest country in Western Europe in 1707, Scotland reaped the economic benefits of free trade within the British Empire together with the intellectual benefits of a highly developed university system. 9 Under these twin stimuli, scottish thinkers began questioning assumptions previously taken for granted; and with Scotland's traditional connections to France, then in the throes of the Enlightenment, the Scots began developing a uniquely practical branch of humanism to the extent that Voltaire said "we. 10 The first major philosopher of the Scottish Enlightenment was Francis Hutcheson, who held the Chair of Philosophy at the University of Glasgow from 1729 to 1746.
century and throughout the 19th century was dominated by the Whigs and (after 1859) their successors the liberal Party. From the Scottish Reform Act 1832 (which increased the number of Scottish MPs and significantly widened the franchise to include more of the middle classes until the end of the century they managed to gain a majority of the westminster Parliamentary seats for Scotland, although. 2 English-educated Scottish peer Lord Aberdeen (17841860) led a coalition government from 1852 to 1855, but in general very few Scots held office in the government. 3 From the mid-century there were increasing calls for Home rule for Scotland and when the conservative lord Salisbury became prime minister in 1885 he responded to pressure for more attention to be paid to Scottish issues by reviving the post of Secretary of State. 4 he appointed the duke of Richmond, a wealthy landowner who was both Chancellor of Aberdeen University and Lord lieutenant of Banff. 5 Towards the end of the century the first Scottish Liberal to become prime minister was the earl of Rosebery (18471929 like aberdeen before him a product of the English education system. 6 In the later 19th century the issue of Irish Home rule led to a split among the liberals, with a minority breaking away to form the liberal Unionists in 1886.
In the 20th century, scotland played a essay major role in the British and allied effort in the two world wars and began to suffer a sharp industrial decline, going through periods of considerable political instability. The decline was particularly acute in the second half of the 20th century, but was compensated for to a degree by the development of an extensive oil industry, technological manufacturing and a growing service sector. This period also increasing debates about the place of Scotland within the United Kingdom, the rise of the. Scottish National Party and after a referendum in 1999 the establishment of a devolved. Contents, late 18th century and 19th century edit, with the advent of the, union with England and the demise. Jacobitism, thousands of Scots, mainly lowlanders, took up positions of power in politics, civil service, the army and navy, trade, economics, colonial enterprises and other areas across the nascent. Historian neil davidson notes that "after 1746 there was an entirely new level of participation by Scots in political life, particularly outside Scotland".
Pueblos - history, modern era, new mexico, arizona
Scotland in the modern era, from the end of the. Jacobite risings and beginnings of industrialisation in the 18th century to the present day, has played a major best part in the economic, military and political history of the United Kingdom, British Empire and Europe, while recurring issues over the status of Scotland, its status and. Scotland made a major contribution to the intellectual life of Europe, particularly in the. Enlightenment, producing major figures including the economist. Adam Smith, philosophers, francis Hutcheson and, david Hume, and scientists, william Cullen, joseph Black and. In the 19th century major figures included. James Watt, james Clerk maxwell, lord Kelvin and, sir Walter Scott. Scotland's economic contribution to the Empire and the industrial revolution included its banking system and the development of cotton, coal mining, shipbuilding and an extensive railway network. Industrialisation and changes to agriculture and society led to depopulation and clearances of the largely rural highlands, migration to the towns and mass immigration, where Scots made a major contribution to the development of countries including the us, canada, australia and New zealand.