67 The primary law is that players other than goalkeepers may not deliberately handle the ball with their hands or arms during play, though they must use both their hands during a throw-in restart. Although players usually use their feet to move the ball around they may use any part of their body (notably, "heading" with the forehead) 68 other than their hands or arms. 69 Within normal play, all players are free to play the ball in any direction and move throughout the pitch, though the ball cannot be received in an offside position. 70 A player executing a slide tackle to dispossess an opponent During gameplay, players attempt to create goal-scoring opportunities through individual control of the ball, such as by dribbling, passing the ball to a teammate, and by taking shots at the goal, which is guarded. Opposing players may try to regain control of the ball by intercepting a pass or through tackling the opponent in possession of the ball; however, physical contact between opponents is restricted. Football is generally a free-flowing game, with play stopping only when the ball has left the field of play or when play is stopped by the referee for an infringement of the rules.
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63 20th and 21st century The growth in women's football has seen major competitions being launched at both national and international level mirroring the male competitions. Women's football has faced many struggles. It had a "golden age" in the United Kingdom in the early 1920s when crowds reached 50,000 at some matches; 64 this was stopped on 5 December 1921 when England's football Association voted to jungle ban the game from grounds used by its member clubs. The fa's ban was rescinded in December 1969 with uefa voting to officially recognise women's football in 1971. 63 The fifa women's World Cup was inaugurated in 1991 and has been held every four years since, 65 while women's football has been an Olympic event since 1996. Gameplay a goalkeeper saving a close-range shot from inside the penalty area association football is played in accordance with a set of rules known as the laws of the game. The game is played using a spherical ball of 6870 cm (2728 in) circumference, 66 essay known as the football (or soccer ball ). Two teams of eleven players each compete to get the ball into the other team's goal (between the posts and under the bar thereby scoring a goal. The team that has scored more goals at the end of the game is the winner; if both teams have scored an equal number of goals then the game is a draw. Each team is led by a captain who has only one official responsibility as mandated by the laws of the game: to represent his or her team in the coin toss prior to kick-off or penalty kicks.
The most successful team of the era was Dick, kerr's Ladies of Preston, England. The team played in the first women's international matches in 1920, against a team from Paris, france, in April, and also made up most of the England team against a scottish Ladies xi in 1920, and winning 22-0. 52 Despite being more popular than some men's football events (one match saw a 53,000 strong crowd 58 women's football in England suffered a blow in 1921 when The football Association outlawed the playing of the game on Association members' pitches, on the grounds for that. 59 Some speculated that this may have also been due to envy of the large crowds that women's matches attracted. 60 This led to the formation of the English Ladies football Association and play moved to rugby grounds. 61 Association football has been played by women since at least the time of the first recorded women's games in the late 19th century. 62 63 It has traditionally been associated with charity games and physical exercise, particularly in the United Kingdom. 63 In the late 1960s and early 1970s women's association football was organised in the United Kingdom, eventually becoming the most prominent team sport for British women.
54 The first match recorded by the Scottish football Association took place in 1892 in Glasgow. In England, the first recorded game of football between women took place in 1895. 54 55 The most well-documented early european team was founded by activist Nettie honeyball in England in 1894. It was named the British Ladies' football Club. Nettie honeyball is"d, "I founded the association late last year 1894, with the fixed resolve of proving to the world that dates women are not the 'ornamental and useless' creatures men have pictured. I must confess, my convictions on all matters where the sexes are so widely divided are all on the side of emancipation, and I look forward to the time when ladies may sit in Parliament and have a voice in the direction of affairs, especially. However, the women's game was frowned upon by the British football associations, and continued without their support. It has been suggested that this was motivated by a perceived threat to the 'masculinity' of the game. 57 a welsh women's football team pose for a photograph in 1959 Women's football became popular on a large scale at the time of the first World War, when employment in heavy industry spurred the growth of the game, much as it had done for.
47 by contrast, football is widely considered to have been the final proximate cause for the football War in June 1969 between El Salvador and Honduras. 48 The sport also exacerbated tensions at the beginning of the yugoslav wars of the 1990s, when a match between Dinamo zagreb and Red Star Belgrade degenerated into rioting in may 1990. 49 Women's association football main article: Women's association football A women's international match between the United States and Germany early women's football Women may have been playing "football" for as long as the game has existed. Evidence shows that an ancient version of the game ( Tsu Chu ) was played by women during the han Dynasty (25220 CE). Two female figures are depicted in Han Dynasty (25220 CE) frescoes, playing Tsu Chu. 50 There are, however, a number of opinions about the accuracy of dates, the earliest estimates at 5000 bce. 51 Association football, the modern game, also has documented early involvement of women. An annual competition in Mid-Lothian, Scotland during the 1790s is reported, too. 52 53 In 1863, football governing bodies introduced standardised rules to prohibit violence on the pitch, making it more socially acceptable for women to play.
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The laws of the game are determined by the International football Association board (ifab). 36 The board was formed in 1886 37 after a meeting in Manchester of The football Association, the Scottish football Association, the football Association of Wales, and the Irish football Association. Fifa, the international football body, was formed in Paris in 1904 and declared that they would adhere to laws of the game of the football Association. 38 The growing popularity of the international game led to the admittance of fifa representatives to the International football Association board in 1913. The board consists of four representatives from fifa and one representative from each of the four British associations. 39 Today, football is played at a professional level all over the world. Millions of people regularly go to football stadiums to follow their favourite teams, 40 while billions more watch the game on television or on the internet.
41 42 a very large number of people also play football at an amateur level. According to a survey conducted by fifa published in 2001, over 240 million people from more than 200 countries regularly play football. 43 football has the highest global television audience in sport. 44 In many parts of the world football evokes great passions and plays an important role in the life of individual fans, local communities, and even nations. Kapuscinski says that Europeans who are polite, modest, or humble fall easily into rage when playing or watching football games. 45 The côte d'ivoire national football team helped secure a truce to the nation's civil war in 2006 46 and it helped further reduce tensions between government and rebel forces in 2007 by playing a match in the rebel capital of bouaké, an occasion that.
In 1862, john Charles Thring of Uppingham School also devised an influential set of rules. 32 These ongoing efforts contributed to the formation of The football Association (The fa) in 1863, which first met on the morning of t the Freemasons' tavern in Great queen Street, london. 33 The only school to be represented on this occasion was Charterhouse. The Freemason's tavern was the setting for five more meetings between October and December, which eventually produced the first comprehensive set of rules. At the final meeting, the first fa treasurer, the representative from Blackheath, withdrew his club from the fa over the removal of two draft rules at the previous meeting: the first allowed for running with the ball in hand; the second for obstructing such.
Other English rugby clubs followed this lead and did not join the fa and instead in 1871 formed the rugby football Union. The eleven remaining clubs, under the charge of Ebenezer Cobb Morley, went on to ratify the original thirteen laws of the game. 33 These rules included handling of the ball by "marks" and the lack of a crossbar, rules which made it remarkably similar to victorian rules football being developed at that time in Australia. The Sheffield fa played by its own rules until the 1870s with the fa absorbing some of its rules until there was little difference between the games. 34 The world's oldest football competition is the fa cup, which was founded. Alcock and has been contested by English teams since 1872. The first official international football match also took place in 1872, between Scotland and England in Glasgow, again at the instigation. England is also home to the world's first football league, which was founded in Birmingham in 1888 by Aston Villa director William McGregor. 35 The original format contained 12 clubs from the midlands and Northern England.
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29 The modern rules of association football are based on the mid-19th century efforts to standardise the widely varying forms of football played in the public schools of England. The history of football in England dates back to at least the eighth century. 30 The cambridge rules, first drawn up at Cambridge University in 1848, were particularly golf influential in the development of subsequent codes, including association football. The cambridge rules were written at Trinity college, cambridge, yardage at a meeting attended by representatives from Eton, harrow, rugby, winchester and Shrewsbury schools. They were not universally adopted. During the 1850s, many clubs unconnected to schools or universities were formed throughout the English-speaking world, to play various forms of football. Some came up with their own distinct codes of rules, most notably the Sheffield football Club, formed by former public school pupils in 1857, 31 which led to formation of a sheffield fa in 1867.
19 Athenaeus, writing in 228 ad, referenced the roman ball game harpastum. Phaininda, episkyros and harpastum were played involving hands and violence. They all appear to have mature resembled rugby football, wrestling and volleyball more than what is recognizable as modern football. As with pre-codified " mob football the antecedent of all modern football codes, these three games involved more handling the ball than kicking. 25 26 Other games included kemari in Japan, 27 chuk-guk in Korea 28 and woggabaliri in Australia. Association football in itself does not have a classical history. 19 Notwithstanding any similarities to other ball games played around the world fifa has recognised that no historical connection exists with any game played in antiquity outside europe.
12 Within the English-speaking world, association football is now usually called football in the United Kingdom and mainly soccer in Canada and the United States. People in Australia, ireland, south Africa and New zealand use either or both terms, although national associations in Australia and New zealand now primarily use "football" for the formal name. 13 History main article: History of association football According to fifa, the Chinese competitive game cuju literally "kick ball is the earliest form of football for which there is evidence. 4 Cuju players could use any part of the body apart from hands and the intent was kicking a ball through an opening into a net. It was remarkably similar to modern football, though similarities to rugby occurred. 15 16 During the han Dynasty (206 bc 220 ad cuju games were standardised and rules were established. 15 Phaininda and episkyros were Greek ball games. 17 18 An image of an episkyros player depicted in low relief on a vase at the national Archaeological Museum of Athens 14 appears on the uefa european Championship Cup.
Laws of the business game were originally codified in England. Players are not allowed to touch the ball with hands or arms while it is in play, save for the goalkeepers within the penalty area. Other players mainly use their feet to strike or pass the ball, but may also use any other part of their body except the hands and the arms. The team that scores most goals by the end of the match wins. If the score is level at the end of the game, either a draw is declared or the game goes into extra time or a penalty shootout depending on the format of the competition. Association football is governed internationally by the. International Federation of Association football (fifa; French : Fédération Internationale de football Association which organises World Cups for both men and women every four years. 9 Contents Name main article: Names for association football The rules of association football were codified in England by the football Association in 1863 and the name association football was coined to distinguish the game from the other forms of football played at the time. The first written "reference to the inflated ball used in the game" was in the mid-14th century: "Þe heued fro þe body went, Als it were a foteballe".
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For other uses, see. This article is about the sport of association football. For other codes of football, see. Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, a is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball. It is played by 250 million players in over 200 countries and dependencies, making it the world's most popular sport. 5 6 7 8, the game is played on a rectangular field with a goal at each end. The object of the game is to score by moving the ball beyond the goal line into the opposing goal. Association football is one of a family of football codes which emerged from various ball games played worldwide since antiquity. The modern game traces its origins to 1863 when the.