These studies suggest most military personnel resist firing their weapons in combat, that as some theorists argue human beings have an inherent resistance to killing their fellow human beings. 53 Swank and Marchands wwii study found that after sixty days of continuous combat, 98 of all surviving military personnel will become psychiatric casualties. Psychiatric casualties manifest themselves in fatigue cases, confusional states, conversion hysteria, anxiety, obsessional and compulsive states, and character disorders. 53 One-tenth of mobilised American men were hospitalised for mental disturbances between 19, and after thirty-five days of uninterrupted combat, 98 of them manifested psychiatric disturbances in varying degrees. — 1418: Understanding the Great War, stéphane audoin-rouzeau, annette becker 31 Additionally, it has been estimated anywhere from 18 to 54 of vietnam war veterans suffered from Post Traumatic Stress Disorder. 53 Based on 1860 census figures, 8 of all white American males aged 13 to 43 died in the American civil War, including about 6 in the north and approximately 18 in the south. 54 The war remains the deadliest conflict in American history, resulting in the deaths of 620,000 military personnel.
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While conventional wisdom holds that casualties have increased in recent times due to technological improvements in warfare, this is not generally true. For instance, the Thirty years' war (1618-1648) had essay about the same number of casualties per capita as World War i, although it was higher during World War ii (wwii). That said, overall responsibility the number of casualties from war has not significantly increased in recent times. Quite to the contrary, on a global scale the time since wwii has been unusually peaceful. 52 On military personnel Military personnel subject to combat in war often suffer mental and physical injuries, including depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, disease, injury, and death. In every war in which American soldiers have fought in, the chances of becoming a psychiatric casualty of being debilitated for some period of time as a consequence of the stresses of military life were greater than the chances of being killed by enemy fire. — no more heroes, richard Gabriel 31 During World War ii, research conducted by us army Brigadier General. Marshall found, on average, 15 to 20 of American riflemen in wwii combat fired at the enemy. 53 In civil War Collectors Encyclopedia,. Lord notes that of the 27,574 discarded muskets found on the gettysburg battlefield, nearly 90 were loaded, with 12,000 loaded more than once and 6,000 loaded 3 to 10 times.
36 plan Largest by death toll main articles: List of wars by death toll and Outline of war Wars Three of the ten most costly wars, in terms of loss of life, have been waged in the last century. These are the two world Wars, followed by the second Sino-japanese war (which is sometimes considered part of World War ii, or as overlapping). Most of the others involved China or neighboring peoples. The death toll of World War ii, being over 60 million, surpasses all other war-death-tolls. 37 Effects Global deaths in conflicts since the year 1400. 50 Military and civilian casualties in recent human history disability-adjusted life year for war per 100,000 inhabitants in 2004 51 no data less than more than 8800 Human history had numerous wars coming and going, but the average number of people dying from war has fluctuated. However, major wars over shorter periods have resulted in much higher casualty rates, with 100-200 casualties per 100,000 over a few years.
31 During the 20th century, war resulted in a dramatic intensification of the pace of social changes, and was a crucial catalyst for the emergence of the left as a force to be reckoned with. 32 Recent rapid increases in the technologies of war, and therefore in its destructiveness (see mutual assured destruction have caused widespread public concern, and have in all probability forestalled, and may altogether prevent the outbreak of a nuclear World War iii. At the end of each of the last two world Wars, concerted and popular efforts were made to come to a greater understanding of the underlying dynamics of war and to thereby hopefully reduce or even eliminate it altogether. These efforts materialized in the forms of the league of Nations, and its successor, the United Nations. According to the. Bureau of the census (1894 the Indian Wars of the 19th century cost the lives of about 50,000. 33 In 1947, in view of the rapidly increasingly destructive consequences of modern warfare, and with a particular concern for the consequences and costs of the newly developed atom bomb, albert Einstein famously stated, "I know not with what weapons World War iii will. However, the evidence examined in the 2008 edition of the center for International development and Conflict Management's "Peace and Conflict" study indicated the overall decline in conflicts had stalled.
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23 Added to the aforementioned (and perhaps too high) figure of 1,240 million between 3500 bc and the late 20th century, this would mean a total of 1,640,000,000 people killed by war (including deaths from famine and disease caused by war) throughout the history and. For comparison, an estimated 1,680,000,000 people died from infectious diseases in the 20th century. 24 Nuclear warfare breaking out in August 1988, when nuclear arsenals were at peak level, and the aftermath thereof, could have reduced human population from 5,150,000,000 by 1,850,000,000 to 3,300,000,000 within a period of about one year, according to a projection that did not consider. 25 This would have been a proportional reduction of the worlds population exceeding the reduction caused in the 14th century by the Black homework death, and comparable in proportional terms with the plagues impact on Europe's population in 134653. In War Before civilization, lawrence. Keeley, a professor at the University of Illinois, says approximately 9095 of known societies throughout history engaged in at least occasional warfare, 26 and many fought constantly.
27 keeley describes several styles of primitive combat such as small raids, large raids, and massacres. All of these forms of warfare were used by primitive societies, a finding supported by other researchers. 28 keeley explains that early war raids were not well organized, as the participants did not have any formal training. Scarcity of resources meant defensive works were not a cost effective way to protect the society against enemy raids. 29 William Rubinstein wrote "Pre-literate societies, even those organised in a relatively advanced way, were renowned for their studied cruelty.'archaeology yields evidence of prehistoric massacres more severe than any recounted in ethnography. E., after the coming of the europeans. 30 Japanese samurai attacking a mongol ship, 13th century In Western Europe, since the late 18th century, more than 150 conflicts and about 600 battles have taken place.
War of aggression is a war for conquest or gain rather than self-defense; this can be the basis of war crimes under customary international law. War of liberation, wars of national liberation or national liberation revolutions are conflicts fought by nations to gain independence. The term is used in conjunction with wars against foreign powers (or at least those perceived as foreign) to establish separate sovereign states for the rebelling nationality. From a different point of view, these wars are called insurgencies, rebellions, or wars of independence. History main article: Military history The percentages of men killed in war in eight tribal societies, and Europe and the.
In the 20th century. Keeley, archeologist) The earliest recorded evidence of war belongs to the mesolithic cemetery site 117, which has been determined to be approximately 14,000 years old. About forty-five percent of the skeletons there displayed signs of violent death. 17 Since the rise of the state some 5,000 years ago, 18 military activity has occurred over much of the globe. The advent of gunpowder and the acceleration of technological advances led to modern warfare. According to conway. Henderson, "One source claims that 14,500 wars have taken place between 3500 bc and the late 20th century, costing.5 billion lives, leaving only 300 years of peace (Beer 1981: 20)." 19 An unfavorable review of this estimate 20 mentions the following regarding one. C." The lower figure is more plausible, 21 but could also be on the high side, considering that the 100 deadliest acts of mass violence between 4 ce (wars and other man-made disasters with at least 300,000 and up to 66 million victims) claimed about. 22 Primitive warfare is estimated to have accounted for.1 of deaths and claimed 400 million victims.
The Spanish civil War was one of Europe's bloodiest and most brutal civil wars. Civil war is a war between forces belonging to the same nation or political entity. Conventional warfare is declared war between states in which nuclear, biological, or chemical weapons are not used or see limited deployment. Cyberwarfare involves the actions by barbing a nation-state or international organization to attack and attempt to damage another nation's information systems. Insurgency is a rebellion against authority, when those taking part in the rebellion are not recognized as belligerents (lawful combatants).An insurgency can be fought via counter-insurgency warfare, and may also be opposed by measures to protect the population, and by political and economic actions. Information warfare is the application of destructive force on a large scale against information assets and systems, against the computers and networks that support the four critical infrastructures (the power grid, communications, financial, and transportation). 16 Nuclear warfare is warfare in which nuclear weapons are the primary, or a major, method of achieving capitulation. Total war is warfare by any means possible, disregarding the laws of war, placing no limits on legitimate military targets, using weapons and tactics resulting in significant civilian casualties, or demanding a war effort requiring significant sacrifices by the friendly civilian population. Unconventional warfare, the opposite of conventional warfare, is an attempt to achieve military victory through acquiescence, plan capitulation, or clandestine support for one side of an existing conflict.
14 The scholarly study of war is sometimes called polemology ( /pɒləmɒlədʒi/ pol-ə-mol-ə-jee from the Greek polemos, meaning "war and -logy, meaning "the study of". Types main article: Types of war War must entail some degree of confrontation using weapons and other military technology and equipment by armed forces employing military tactics and operational art within a broad military strategy subject to military logistics. Studies of war by military theorists throughout military history have sought to identify the philosophy of war, and to reduce it to a military science. Modern military science considers several factors before a national defence policy is created to allow a war to commence: the environment in the area(s) of combat operations, the posture national forces will adopt on the commencement of a war, and the type of warfare troops. Asymmetric warfare is a conflict between two write populations of drastically different levels of military capability or size. Biological warfare, or germ warfare, is the use of weaponized biological toxins or infectious agents such as bacteria, viruses, and fungi. Chemical warfare involves the use of weaponized chemicals in combat. Poison gas as a chemical weapon was principally used during World War i, and resulted in over a million estimated casualties, including more than 100,000 civilians. 15 ruins of guernica (1937).
in 1990. 5 In 2003, richard Smalley identified war as the sixth (of ten) biggest problem facing humanity for the next fifty years. 6 War usually results in significant deterioration of infrastructure and the ecosystem, a decrease in social spending, famine, large-scale emigration from the war zone, and often the mistreatment of prisoners of war or civilians. 7 8 9 For instance, of the nine million people who were on the territory of the byelorussian ssr in 1941, some.6 million were killed by the germans in actions away from battlefields, including about 700,000 prisoners of war, 500,000 Jews, and 320,000 people. 10 Another byproduct of some wars is the prevalence of propaganda by some or all parties in the conflict, 11 and increased revenues by weapons manufacturers. 12 Contents Etymology The English word war derives from the late Old English (circa.1050) words wyrre and werre, from Old French werre (also guerre as in modern French in turn from the Frankish * werra, ultimately deriving from the Proto-germanic * werzō 'mixture, confusion'. The word is related to the Old Saxon werran, old High German werran, and the german verwirren, meaning to confuse, to perplex, and to bring into confusion. 13 In German, the equivalent is Krieg (from Proto-germanic * krīganą 'to strive, be stubborn the Spanish, portuguese, and Italian term for "war" is guerra, derived like the Old French term from the germanic word.
It is generally characterized by extreme aggression, destruction, and mortality, using regular or irregular military forces. Warfare refers to the common activities and characteristics of shredder types of war, or of wars in general. 1, total war is warfare that is not restricted to purely legitimate military targets, and can result in massive civilian or other non-combatant suffering and casualties. While some scholars see war as a universal and ancestral aspect of human nature, 2 others argue it is a result of specific socio-cultural or ecological circumstances. 3, the deadliest war in history, in terms of the cumulative number of deaths since its start,. World War ii, from 1939 to 1945, with 6085 million deaths, followed by the. Mongol conquests 4 at up to 60 million.
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Organised and margaret prolonged violent conflict between states. This article is about war in general. For other uses, see. War (disambiguation) and, the war (disambiguation). "Conflict zone" redirects here. For the 2001 video game, see. War is a state of armed conflict between states, societies and informal groups, such as insurgents and militias.