Due to low expectations that society has perpetuated from early age, learners with disabilities rarely leave school with a clear picture of what they are capable of contributing towards community life. A study by Irungu (2008) on the nature of guidance and counselling learners with disabilities receive at school found that a majority of learners who fall in the 17-18 age range find it difficult to discover their self-identity and assert independence, or search for goals. Education provision and all other services have not fully escaped the notion that it is a form of charity to view education as a right for those with disabilities. Persons with disabilities are therefore still relegated to the margins of society. Only manual and poorly paid jobs are open to them. Physical restrictions bar them from public utilities and transport. Societal attitudes, prejudices, and ignorance have continually led to unnecessary institutionalization (Songe, 2004:8; Abagi, 1997). Most young people view the acquisition of work as a major goal since it allows them to live independently of their parents, control their own lives, and take responsibility for their own futures.
Využití sportovních aktivit u osob s tělesným postižením
Accepting a disability enables one to reflect on capabilities and limitations so as to balance oneself between the two. The facilitation of such wanna acceptance can be enhanced through observance of the obligations of the un convention on the rights of Persons with Disabilities that urges Nations that are a party to this convention "to take all appropriate measures to eliminate discrimination on the basis. The ultimate goal of this convention is acquisition of rights and dignity of persons with disabilities. Legitimizing disability becomes a core to the incorporation of self as a person with disability, rather than being overwhelmed by the disability. Societal and Cultural Stumbling Blocks to Identity formation for Persons with Disabilities in Kenya. As much as persons with disabilities may have strived to formulate their self-identity, several stumbling blocks remain. Assets versus liabilities, ndurumo (1993) argues that the way a country's society views and values persons with disability, as well as how it allocates its resources, greatly influences the status of the population with disability. It influences whether persons with disabilities become liabilities or assets. In Kenya, persons with disabilities have consistently been viewed as liabilities rather than assets. This perception may have been influenced by the way persons with disabilities have been prepared for life right from school to adult life.
The rejection of disability in this context could take two different routes — either acceptance of disability as a characteristic that does not canvas the personal self, or a denial that is oppressive and robs a person with with disability's true identity. Legitimizing disability, society needs to acknowledge the sometimes elusive boundary between having impairment and being able-bodied. It should acknowledge that very few of us qualify as fully able-bodied along all dimensions of functioning throughout all of our lives. Hence, impairment should be seen as part of the human condition rather than a basis for setting someone apart, or a characteristic diminishing one's humanness. Furthermore, the political consequence of not identifying with disability may be seen as self-alienation and inauthenticity. A person with disability need not live in denial of the disability. In fact, the best move is to legitimize it as part of life but not as its central focus.
Hence watson's (2002:509) surprise when encountering persons with disabilities who in essence portrayed the following idea: "Well, i know this is going to sound very strange to you, but I do not see myself as a disabled person." This person with disability is able. If what he or she is able to do is not done, the logical attribution will be directed towards societal and environmental barriers rather than the impairment. This way he or she accepts his or her daily life with impairments as what is normal, as long as restrictive measures are removed. In addition, when a person with a disability sees himself or herself as person first and disability as just one of the characteristics in his or her personality, he or she realizes that human beings in their totality have characteristics that devalue their personality, and. Hence, impairment is reduced to or interpreted as one characteristic that is different amongst several similar characteristics in the human person. This constitutes true normalization. But this approach poses a challenge of its own concerning the illegibility of who should be viewed as a person with a disability. Who decides who has a disability? In its attempt to define disability in the context of The national Convention of Human Rights (2004 the kenyan draft committee noted that the definition is only applicable to a person if he or she views him or herself as a person with disability.
Člověk s postižením v sourozeneckých konstelacích
(2005) argue that identity formation among persons with disabilities is regularly immobilized by the way society constitutes them as strangers in the contemporary world. Exclusionary processes that blight desire and curtail opportunities to participate in contemporary cultures of consumption frustrate persons with disabilities. Young persons with disabilities in particular seem to be very aware of the identity dynamics that reinforce their exclusion (Murray 2002) as well as the ways in which their difference, far from being celebrated as diversity, is used to stereotype them as tragic figures. Constraints upon the development of identity are many, and markets of desire that offer the important trinkets of identity are not always accessible to persons with disabilities. This makes it very difficult to assume an identity other than the one that is "conferred" by impairment. Moreover, research on identity, self, and disability (Shakespeare, 1996) indicates that persons with impairments or chronic conditions often suffer loss of self; they go through a process during which they negotiate their lives in such a way as to be as ordinary as possible and.
These persons become assimilated and have to follow some writing regulations that will render them acceptable by functioning as normally as possible. This kind of conformity has often been referred to as normalization, but in actual fact it is assimilation since it requires that a person with disability strive to live a life like that of a non-disabled person. In the formation of identity, "self-concept" needs to be reviewed through an analysis of oppressive social relations, with a focus on changing society and empowering persons with disabilities, and not vise versa. Despite daily experiences of oppressive practices by non-disabled peers, there are persons with disabilities who do not incorporate disability in their identity. They ascribe to themselves the label of a "normal" person and challenge the "biological" self as unimportant as long as they are capable of engaging in life roles as much as the non-disabled persons, in some instances doing more than their counterparts.
This lack may lead to low self-esteem, poor self-image, and negative self-concept. Yet, some persons with disabilities, for instance those with visual impairments, have similar school potentials, mental functioning, and educational aspirations as their non-disabled peers (Mengitsu, 1994:41). Furthermore, persons with disabilities often live a highly structured life. Too often, decisions are made and activities selected for them. In addition, it is difficult for persons with disabilities to cope with and overcome limitations, practical and emotional, that are caused by impairments without acquiring knowledge and gaining experience in confronting obstacles, meeting challenges, and engaging in activities that develop problem-solving strategies.
Moreover, yanchak (2005:135) argues that persons with disabilities often encounter difficulty forming a secure vocational identity because of self-identity issues rather than decision-making problems. Reconstruction of Normalcy in Constructions of Self-identity. Watson (2002:519) argues that the self-identity of persons with disabilities can be achieved not through a sidelining of impairment but through a reconstruction of what is normalcy. In this context, a person with disability challenges the social construction of what is regarded as normal and a normal body and embraces the difference of a body with impairment as what is normal to him or her. Self-identity hence becomes a product of a conscious action that questions identity dominated by social ascription. Challenging social systems, in which persons with disabilities are subordinated through relations that are contradictory to their own views of self, helps persons with disabilities to create self-identities that are far removed from biomedical models that present disability as tragedy. Furthermore, the self-identity created does not necessarily show off difference; is it not about celebrating difference or diversity, or taking pride in identity through labeling, but about defining disability in its own terms, under its own terms of reference (Watson 2002:521). However, hughes.
Thesis statement narrative essay - have your Research
We are able to choose our identity and ignore and even reject identities fostered on us as a result of ascribed characteristics. We do all these by creation of narratives about the self which, provided we can sustain these narratives, work to maintain our sense of self. In consequence, through this approach, the problems associated with conflating identities into real essential, fixed, pre-ordained, singular categories — including the homogenization of persons with disabilities into a singular group and the ascription of a single identity — can be avoided. Our sense of self is constantly evolving and we constantly reconfigure ourselves through multiple identities; time, space, and relationality are all important in identity formation and achievement of the self-concept. Self-concept may be defined as "knowing oneself, accepting oneself with one's limitations, not being ashamed of the limitations but simply seeing them as part of the reality one is in, and perhaps as a boundary one is challenged to expand" (Murugami, 2002:2; Berne savary, 1981). Some constraints to Identity formation For Persons With Disabilities. Shahnasarian (2001:276) argues that the self-concept and real challenges that sometimes confront persons with disabilities can have broad implications for personal development in terms of education, career, and community life. The implications might lead to experiences of underachievement and inadequate fulfillment. This argument also raises other concerns about persons with disabilities' lack of self-actualization.
The gist of this paper is over the premise that a person with disability has the capability of constructing a self-identity not constituted in impairment but rather independent of it, and of accepting impairment as a reality that he or she lives with without losing. Disability in a socio-cultural context can be defined as "a barrier to participation of people with impairments or chronic illnesses arising from an interaction of the impairment or illness with discriminatory attitudes, cultures, policies or institutional practices" (Booth, 2000). Identity is "the condition of being a person and the process by which we become a person, that is, how we are constituted as subjects" (Kidd, 2001). The Essence of Self in Identity formation. The universal construct of the self is the product of the fact that every human being is aware of his individuality. It is a premise that human beings are consciously aware of their own lives and it is through reflexivity that we become aware of a consciously constructed self. Self is seen as a universal human property, something that we must all possess and a characteristic that we must all develop. Self in this context enables us to reflect on who we are, whom we choose to identify with, and what we choose to do as matters of choice, not compulsion. Group membership in this kind of reflection is no longer synonymous with identity formation.
when researching and writing. Html, pdf, writing Abstracts, learn how to briefly and objectively describe scholarly sources. Html, pdf, writing book reviews, learn to apply analytical reading strategies to evaluate how well books accomplish their authors' intended goals. Html pdf writing Conclusions learn to explore the implications of your topic or argument in a strong ending paragraph. Html pdf writing Resumes cover Letters make a strong impression when applying to jobs or graduate school with a well-designed resume and cover letter. Introduction, the concept of "identity" has become both a contested and a fertile field of research and theory in recent years (Watson, 2002). Several assumptions have come into focus: that identity can be structured upon shared social experience; that there are fixed identities of persons with disabilities; and that the self plays a significant role in the formation of identity. However, it is important to understand the rhetoric versus practical realities in order to assess what can free persons with disabilities from fixed identities that have been enforced overtime by regulatory regimes embodied in cultural and societal prejudices.
Introduces the supermarket basic concepts necessary to craft a dissertation. Html, pdf, how to Write a thesis Statement. A thesis statement expresses the central argument or claim of your essay. Learn more in this pamphlet. Html, pdf, video, paragraphs and Topic Sentences, every paragraph should have a topic sentence. Html, pdf, personal Statements application Letters, helpful tips for crafting a compelling personal statement or application letter. Html, pdf, plagiarism, understand what constitutes plagiarism and how to avoid this serious problem. Html, pdf, proofreading Grammar, learn to proofread for errors in spelling, punctuation, and grammar. Html, pdf, proofreading Spelling, learn how to avoid common spelling errors.
Abed - end The cycle
Follow the instructions below to redeem the access code found in the pearson learning Solutions Student Access Kit that was packaged with your book. First-time london Users: Click the, register link to register your pearson Online solutions Student Access Code. For additional assistance registering, click here. No course id is required. Returning Users: Click the, sign-In button, and enter the login name and password that you created when registering. American Perspectives: readings in American History, volume. Home, writing guides, doctoral Dissertations proposals, social Sciences humanities.