Cazden (19) and Lindfors (1987) explore in detail the difficulties that arise for students when the language competencies and expectations they bring to classrooms are not adequately recognized, understood, or catered for by their teachers. Guided reading is an approach that provides many opportunities both to support students language/literacy development sensitively and carefully and to develop greater awareness of the particular forms of expertise that individual students bring to language and literacy experiences. Often there are subtle but significant differences in the ways in which different students respond during discussion of texts, and this is evident to the sensitive listener/observer, particularly during the discussions that follow the guided reading of a text. Some may respond confidently to teachers questions, but others may have difficulty when interrogated or questioned directly by teachers. Such students may engage more readily and learn more effectively if the discussion takes the form of a genuine conversation (Wiencek and OFlahavan, 1994 especially one in which their questions are encouraged. In group instruction where students feel safe and secure, they are willing to take risks, to become more involved, and therefore they gain more experience and confidence in exploring and articulating their own. Guided reading helps students to understand particular texts and to use a range of reading and thinking strategies on other texts.
Goals for, first Grade: Early reading and Writing
He argues that these constructions are a joint outcome of personal and reviews social activities, which vary considerably from family to family or one community to another. The effect is that students develop particular kinds of expertise, for example, some become expert at memorising, some at reading aloud as a performance, and others become skilled at asking questions. According to McNaughton, the students concepts are continually constructed and changed as a result of their own personal behavior and that of others, hence the notion of co-construction. The implications of social constructivist understandings for teachers at all levels of the school are significant, especially for those supporting the literacy development of students whose language/cultural backgrounds differ from their own. To implement guided reading effectively, teachers need to be fully aware of the nature and impact of the diversity among their students and seek strategies for catering for this diversity. For example, extra care is needed to ensure that the texts selected for guided reading and the processes employed throughout the approach connect with and build on the students existing expertise. When discussing texts, teachers should be aware that students from diverse backgrounds may not necessarily respond to questions in ways that teachers expect, not because they have limited language or lack concentration, but because their experiences to date have not yet enabled them to develop. It is widely acknowledged that teachers expectations can result in judgments about students educational potential on the basis of how they behave and talk, thereby setting up self-fulfilling prophecies that lead to the anticipated differences in levels of achievement. Wood (1988) says Crudely, because some teachers expect less of students from some social backgrounds, these students are taught and learn less. Gaining adequate awareness of diversity and then responding appropriately to that diversity is not an easy globe task for teachers.
These understandings about literacy learning are highly relevant to guided reading because guided reading is essentially a carefully managed social occurrence. During guided reading, the teacher works to extend the students literacy development by responding sensitively presentation to their efforts and providing appropriate, ongoing guidance and support as they read (Fountas and Pinnell, 1996). Within these learning experiences, teachers are developing not only students ability to understand more fully the particular texts being read but also their ability to use a range of reading and thinking (metacognitive) strategies when processing other texts they encounter. Further understandings about the social interaction involved in learning to read and the need for the more sophisticated other to respond sensitively to the learner are detailed by McNaughton (1995). Drawing on his research with New zealand families and the ideas of writers such as Vygotsky, heath, and Bronfenbrenner, he discusses students early literacy. Literacy develops best through social interaction and dialogue with others. Guided reading is essentially a carefully managed social occurrence. 6 The guided reading Approach learning in terms of a theory of co-construction. He stresses the significance of constant interaction between a students own mental constructions and those of his/her family and cultural group.
Alternatively, teachers may decide to read the text aloud to the students if they think that more teacher support is required to make the text accessible to the group. Social interaction is essential when learning to read Interaction with others (both adults and year peers) in a wide variety of settings is an essential part of students language and literacy learning (Braunger and Lewis, 1998; Spiegel, 1998; wiencek and OFlahavan, 1994). In fact, classroom studies show that the amount and breadth of students reading is strongly related to social interaction as well as strategy teaching (Guthrie, schafer, wang, and Afflerbach, 1995). In Vygotskys (1978) view, learning is a social occurrence that can be fostered when teaching is focused in the learners zone of proximal development. This zone has been described as the area between the level at which the student is currently achieving and the level at which the student can achieve if there is assistance from a more knowledgeable person or, in Braunger and Lewiss terms (1998,. 29 a more sophisticated other. Because literacy develops best through social interaction and dialogue with others (Dowhower, 1999 teachers are advised to scaffold or support students learning by collaborative means to help them make sense of literature and become actively engaged in meaning-making more generally (Dugan, 1997). This is a social constructivist view of teaching. It involves the teacher making a shift from asking predetermined questions designed to ensure that the students arrive at the right meaning to facilitating conversations that encourage students exploratory talk as they arrive at a deeper meaning (gavelek and Raphael, 1996).
Ongoing analysis of individual students strengths and needs is important. Students are more likely to make meaningful connections with new information if they already know something about. When using guided reading, teachers need to consider the extent to which their students existing knowledge matches the ideas in the text. Guided reading enables teachers to become aware of and cater effectively for the diversity of understanding that students bring to their readings. 5 The guided reading Approach whether that particular text should be used for guided reading with those students or whether an alternative text that is more relevant to their background knowledge should be sought. In situations where students are required to read texts for which they have limited schemata, special teaching strategies are required to develop the background knowledge that the students bring to the text. Teachers may, for example, provide introductory activities (such as discussions of photographs, video clips, or maps) to enhance the students background knowledge before they read and as they guide the group through the text.
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Schema theory attempts to explain how meaning-making occurs and how knowledge is stored management and organized in the brain. According to henk (1993 schemata represent the knowledge structures in readers minds, and these structures allow readers to connect new information with what they already know. In his view, incoming information either fits into existing knowledge structures or forces the emergence of new ones. When readers encounter new examples of things for which they have an existing schema, they are more likely to make meaningful connections with that new information than they are if relevant schemata are lacking. Pressley (1998) also discusses the concept of schema activation, noting that activation can dramatically affect (p. 201) comprehension, attention allocation, and memory of what is read.
When planning and implementing guided reading sessions, teachers are encouraged to consider the extent to which their students existing schemata match the ideas embedded in the text. Readers must draw from their existing knowledge in order to understand text (Braunger and Lewis, 1998 and the meanings they construct will vary somewhat from reader to reader (Pressley, 1998). Multiple interpretations are generated amongst readers because their responses to literature are both personal and grounded in text (Spiegel, 1998). It is therefore important that teachers develop an awareness of the range of background knowledge that students bring to school, including their overall prior knowledge and the specific prior knowledge required to read particular texts (Braunger and Lewis, 1998). Guided reading enables teachers both to develop this awareness and to cater effectively for the diversity that is usually revealed. For example, where there seems to be a close match between the schema of the student and that embedded in the text, teachers can consciously activate students relevant schema during the introduction to guided reading and extend that knowledge during the reading and the discussion. However, when students existing schemata for a text appear to be limited, judgments need to be made about.
This might seem to be a daunting list, but each is an important strategy and, as fielding and pearson (1994,. 67, cited in Dowhower, 1999) point out, students are more likely to make these comprehension strategies their own when they have frequent and systematic opportunities to read and discuss whole text with a teacher and peers. The challenge for teachers is to provide these opportunities frequently, thereby facilitating the development of effective strategies for comprehending both narrative and expository texts of many kinds (Braunger and Lewis, 1998; Caswell and duke, 1998; Flippo, 1998). Guided reading is an approach that is concerned with the development of comprehension. Readers build their own understandings of the authors message.
4 The guided reading Approach It is specifically designed to enable comprehension strategies to be taught systematically and used by students across a range of texts. The emphasis is on silent reading because it is more authentic and relevant to real life than oral reading, and it is also more effective for learning than oral reading, especially oral round-robin reading, which has been shown to decrease comprehension (Dowhower, 1999). Because teachers work closely with relatively small groups for guided reading, they are able to monitor carefully each students processing of texts and adjust further teaching and text selection in the light of their responses. The importance of this ongoing analysis of individual students strengths and needs is emphasized by various writers (see, for example, flood, lapp, Flood, and Nagel, 1992). Background knowledge and prior experience are critical to the reading process The crucial role of prior knowledge in reading is widely recognized (Anderson and pearson, 1984, cited in Braunger and Lewis, 1998,. 28; Caswell and duke, 1998) and is often discussed in terms of schema theory.
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5 for example, have identified thirteen core understandings about learning to read, all of which have a basis in research and theory and are significant for classroom literacy programs in general and relevant to a consideration of guided reading in particular. This paper considers the six basic understandings that are most directly relevant and meaningful to a classroom teacher using guided reading at grades. Reading is a construction of meaning from written text it is an active, cognitive, and affective process reading is an interactive process in which readers actively engage with texts, building their own understanding of the authors message. The meaning they make is at the heart of the reading process (Braunger and Lewis, 1998; Clay, 1991, 1998; learning Media, 1997; Pressley, 1998). However, as Pressley points out, although the development of comprehension is a widely agreed-upon goal of literacy instruction, it rarely is offered as systematically as it could be in the elementary grades (1998,. Dowhower (1999) also expresses concern that discussions of text content and teaching of strategies to enhance comprehension have been rare in classrooms. Such strategies, dowhower suggests, should include: (i) activating background knowledge, (ii) predicting, (iii) generating visual images, (iv) summarizing, (v) self-questioning, presentation (vi) analyzing text for story grammar (or story structure) elements (including narrative story parts, such as character or events, as well as the ways that.
This paper endeavors to do this with respect to guided reading. How this aligns with the guided reading process. Guided reading enables teachers to provide very effective support for students literacy learning. The teachers role in guided reading is to actively enhance students understanding. Guided reading: Grounded in Theoretical business Understandings jeanne biddulph. 3 The guided reading Approach Basic Understandings That Underpin a guided reading Approach The theories that underpin guided reading are complex and varied, and a full discussion of these is well beyond the scope of this paper. Braunger and Lewis (1998,.
student. The distinction is critical because, as Dowhower (1999) reports, there is evidence that many teachers unwittingly assume the role of interrogators because they tend to confuse assessment with direct teaching of comprehension. Guided reading is an approach to literacy education that can help overcome that confusion. It can help teachers refocus on the vitally important teaching role. For guided reading to be used effectively, however, teachers need to be aware of and appreciate the basic understandings or underlying theoretical perspectives on which the approach is based. Sometimes the view is expressed that teachers do not need to concern themselves with theory, but this is not. Whether teachers (or curriculum developers or curriculum writers) recognize it or not, all their work has a theoretical basis. From a professional point of view, it is important to identify and acknowledge the theoretical perspectives (understandings) that underpin such work.
2 The guided reading Approach, introduction. Guided reading is an important approach in literacy education. Used in conjunction with other approaches (such as shared reading, reading aloud, and independent reading it enables teachers to provide very effective support for students literacy learning. How does guided reading provide such support? What is involved in using a guided reading approach? A teacher using a guided reading approach selects a text that is appropriate for a particular group of students (usually of similar reading ability introduces that text by talking to the students about relevant experiences that they may have had, provides sensitive support for the. The reading is done silently (or quietly, to yourself if the student is an emergent reader). Discussion of the text before, after, and sometimes during the reading is central to the approach because the fundamental purpose is to enhance each students understanding of what they are reading.
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