Deductive thinking is also called syllogistic thinking. See induction, logic, and logical fallacies, and the class's syllogism handouts. Deductum carmen (Latin, "drawn-out song ovid's term in Eclogue.3-5 for the type of poem he will create in his own poetry, in contrast with the older epic. He claims that a "modern" (i.e., imperial) poet of his day should not be writing epics, but instead should follow the example of Callimachus, in which the poem's narrative structure is drawn out in a manner akin to the way a thread is drawn out. This method contrasts with the epic, in which a single narrative focusing on kings and conquerors broadly dominates the entire poem. Deep structure : In noam Chomsky's transformational grammar, the biological "hardwiring" in the brain that gives children the capacity to use language, as opposed to the surface structure,. E., the incidentals of the language children actually learn.
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Frequently, the dedication is to a wallpaper spouse, friend, loved one, child, mentor, or individual who inspired the work. Several of the Inklings dedicated specific fictional works to each other (or in the case. Lewis, to children of fellow Inklings). Among scholars, one of the most significant types of dedications is a festschrift. A festschrift is a collection of essays or studies in book form, dedicated to a former teacher or professor in his or her advanced age. The individual scholarly writings come from his or her students, who typically collaborate to organize the work and contact the publisher, and they present the collection to the teacher upon its publication. Deduction : The process of logic in which a thinker takes a rule for a large, general elite category and assumes that specific individual examples fitting within that general category obey the same rule. For instance, a general rule might be that "Objects made of iron rust." When the logician then encounters a shovel made of iron, he can assume deductively that the shovel made of iron will also rust just as other iron objects. This process is the opposite of induction. Induction fashions a large, general rule from a specific example. Deduction determines the truth about specific examples using a large general rule.
Click here for an example from Dagulf's Psalter in order to view one. Inhabited initial and historiated initial. Decorum lined : The requirement that individual characters, the characters' actions, and the style of speech should be matched to each other and to the genre in which they appear. This idea was of central importance to writers and literary critics from the time of the renaissance up through the eighteenth century. Lowly characters, low actions, and low style, for instance, were thought necessary for satire. Epic literature, on the other hand, called for characters of high estate, engaging in great actions, and speaking using elevated, poetic diction. Dedication : A short bit of text conventionally appearing before the start of a novel or poem in which the author or poet addresses some individual, invoking his or her gratitude or thanks to that individual.
It would be more accurate to assert that deconstructionists deny the absolute value of literature, and assert that all literature is ultimately incapable of offering a constructed meaning external to the "prison-house of language which always embodies oppositional ideas within itself. Deconstruction is symptomatic in many ways of postmodernism. In the more radical fringes of postmodernism, postmodern artists, dramatists, poets, and writers seek to emphasize the conventions of story-telling (rather than hide these conventions behind verisimilitude ) and break away from conventions like realism, cause-and-effect, and traditional plot in narratives. Such a text might be called " deconstructed " in a loose sense. Decorated initial : In medieval manuscripts, this term refers to an introductory letter of a text division, embellished with some type of abstract design,. E., a design not necessarily containing a picture (which would make it an inhabited initial ) and not necessarily containing a scene from the story (which would make it an historiated initial ). Unlike the latter two types, the adornment in a decorated initial has no overt connection to the material discussed or narrated in the book's contents.
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In particular, Théophile gautier, Charles baudelaire, oscar Wilde, and Audrey beardsley are representative writers and poets in this movement. Declension : see discussion under declined language or click here for example cases. Declined language : Also called a synthetic language, or an inflected language, a declined language is one in which word order is not as important in making meaning as the use of inflections or declensions -special endings stuck on the end of words-to indicate the. These endings are called declensions, a term that comes from the handwritten grammar charts used by medieval monks who create a series of angled or declined lines in specified patterns, and on these lines the students would write the correct word-ending as part of grammar. Click here for further information. Deconstructed : see discussion under deconstruction. Deconstruction : An interpretive movement in literary letter theory that reached its apex in the 1970s.
Deconstruction rejects absolute interpretations, stressing ambiguities and contradictions in literature. Deconstruction grew out of the linguistic principles of de saussure who noted that many Indo-european languages create meaning by binary opposites. Verbal oppositions such as good/evil, light/dark, male/female, rise/fall, up/down, and high/low show a human tendency common transculturally to create vocabulary as pairs of opposites, with one of the two words arbitrarily given positive connotations and the other word arbitrarily given negative connotations. Deconstructionists carry this principle one step further by asserting that this tendency is endemic to all words, and hence all literature. For instance, they might try to complicate literary interpretations by revealing that "heroes" and "villains" often have overlapping traits, or else they have traits that only exist because of the presence of the other. Hence these concepts are unreliable in themselves as a basis for talking about literature in any meaningful way. Oftentimes, detractors of deconstruction argue that deconstructionists deny the value of literature, or assert that all literature is ultimately meaningless.
Contrast with the "young man" sonnets earlier in the collection. Darra arlo (on, "Song of Dorrud In the last chapters of Njal's Saga, a minor character named Dorrud sees a group of twelve mysterious women (probably intended to be the valkyries). The women enter into a room and sing as they weave a loom composed of human heads, intestines, swords, and arrows-an idea often associated with the norns (the Old Norse equivalent of the Greek fates or Roman Parcae ). Scholars traditionally refer to this section of Njal's Saga and the women's song as the darra arlo. Dative : see discussion here. Dawn song (also called an aubade a genre of poetry common to europe in which the poem is about the dawn or coming of dawn, or it is a piece of music meant to be sung or played outdoors at dawn.
Examples include Browning's "The year's at the spring / And day's at the morn" from Pippa passes or Shakespeare's "Hark! The lark." Some poems, such as John Donne's "Busy old sun" share traits with the dawn song, and Chaucer's Troilus and Criseyde also contains an example inside its larger narrative. Dead language : In linguistics, a dead language is one that does not change any more over time-it is "frozen" historically because it is no longer used in everyday discourse, but is instead learned only for ritual use, scholarly study, or the preservation. Classical Latin and Sanskrit are two examples of dead languages. This situation contrasts with a living language, in which old words die out, new ones are added, and existing words change their meaning continually over time from one generation to the next,. Baugh puts it (2). Decadence, the : A literary movement in late nineteenth-Century England, France, germany, and Spain associated with dark or "amoral" symbolism, focusing on the theme of artifice as opposed to naturalism.
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At this point, Alfred made a treaty with the danes so that England was divided. The northeastern section between the rivers Thames and tees was officially declared to be danish territory and later become known as the danelaw (where the inhabitants followed Danish law from 890 onward). The influence of this period of viking settlement is still visible in the north of England and the east Midlands, especially in toponyms or place-names. Towns with name-endings such as -by or -thorp are all places named by the viking settlers. Dans macabre (French, "morbid dance a gruesome motif or trend that spread through late medieval Europe's visual art, architecture, sculpture, and poetry in the wake of the Black Plague ( CE) and which remained common in woodcuts, gravemarkers, and cenotaphs through the renaissance two hundred. Visually, it took the form of imagery involving bones, skeletons, graves, and similar death-imagery, most famously in images of living revelers intermixed with animated skeletons carousing, eating, drinking, and dancing. Functionally, the art was a memento mori, a reminder of death's inevitability in the face of each individual's mortality. In terms of literature, we find traces of the dans macabre motif appearing in tombstone epitaphs such as " Such as i am, so shalt Thou be or poetic verse such as " Golden lads and girls all must, / As chimney-sweeps, come to dust.". This contrasts with the traditional Petrarchan conceits of a fair-haired and fair-skinned guaranteed lover who is coldly aloof to the male speaker's wooing.
Danelaw (Anglo-saxon, dena lagu the region of northeast England up to the southern part of Scotland that was conquered and inhabited by viking invaders. In 871 ce, a wessex army under King Aethelred (the west Saxon king) and his brother Alfred confronted the danish vikings at the battle of Ashdown (in modern Berkshire). Unfortunately, after a series of losses, wessex began paying annual Danegeld (tribute) to the vikings. Aethelred died soon after, and viking settlers swarmed into the northern parts of England while their raiders occupied London. The vikings continued their expansion until 878. That year, king Alfred the Great rallied men from Somerset and Wiltshire writers and decisively defeated the danish vikings. The danes were too numerous to dislodge from their holdings, but it was clear that they would not be able to expand their territory while Alfred lived. King Alfred freed London from Danish occupation in 886.
that naturally constitute dactyls include strawberry, carefully, changeable, merrily, mannequin, tenderly, prominent, buffalo, glycerin, notable, scorpion, tedious, horrible, and parable. Verses written in feet that follow this pattern are said to be in dactylic meter. For further discussion, see meter, or click here for a pdf handout contrasting dactyls and other types of feet. Dagger : Another term for the symbol obelisk. Danegeld : The practice of paying extortion money to vikings to make them go away, often associated in particular with the Anglo-saxon king "Aethelred Unraed." His nickname means "Aethelred the Unready or more accurately translated, "Aethelred the Uncounciled." At various points in history, british kings. This failed policy of Danegeld ultimately led to large portions of northern England being settled by the vikings in the area known as the danelaw, which in turn played a key part in the evolution of the English language through the incorporation of Scandinavian loan-words. Words like skiff, ship, and shirt, for instance, are all loan-words borrowed from the vikings. Nb : Danegeld should not be confused with wergild.
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